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Intro to physical science and measurements

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Intro to physical science and measurements

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Intro to physical science and measurements

  1. 1. + CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL SCIENCE
  2. 2. + SCIENCE systematized or organized body of knowledge based on observation, experimentation and study. comes from the Latin word Scientia - knowledge or knowing
  3. 3. + BRANCHES OF SCIENCE Biological Science Physical Science Social Science
  4. 4. + BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE deals with the study of living things ex. Biology, Botany, Zoology, Ornithology
  5. 5. + SOCIAL SCIENCE Study of human behaviour and societies Ex. History, Economics, Political Science
  6. 6. + PHYSICAL SCIENCE deals with the study of non-living things, their composition, nature, characteristics, the changes they have undergone and the factors affecting these changes
  7. 7. + BRANCHES OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE  Chemistry- the study of “matter”- its composition, properties, structure and the changes it undergoes.
  8. 8. + BRANCHES OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE  Physics- the science of matter and energy and their interaction with each other.
  9. 9. + BRANCHES OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE  Astronomy- study of the universe and the heavenly bodies.
  10. 10. + BRANCHES OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE Geology- deals with the composition of Earth materials, Earth structures, and Earth processes
  11. 11. + BRANCHES OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE Meteorology- study of the atmosphere and how processes in the atmosphere determines Earth’s weather and climate
  12. 12. + CHAPTER 2 MEASUREMENT
  13. 13. + MEASUREMENT Collection of quantitative data Made by comparing an unknown quantity with a standard unit Example:The length of a piece of string can be measured by comparing the string against a meter stick. www.endlesslift.com
  14. 14. + Every measurement is composed of a number and a unit. sakai.ithaca.edu
  15. 15. + SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT ENGLISH SYSTEM- most commonly used in the US. Disadvantage: units are not systematically related to each other and require memorization. METRIC (SI)- used by the scientist around the world. Adopted from the French name Le Systeme Internationale d’ Unites
  16. 16. + ENGLISH SYSTEM UNITS www.spacegrant.montana.edu slideplayer.com
  17. 17. + SI PREFIXES
  18. 18. + www.boundless.com
  19. 19. + LENGTH  Measurement of anything from end to end  How long an objects is  The basis of length units for the metric system is the meter. 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters = 25.4 millimeters 1 foot = 30.48 centimeters 1 yard = 0.91 meters 1 mile = 1.6 kilometers  1 millimeter = 0.04 inches 1 centimeter = .39 inches = 0.0325 feet 1 meter = 3.28 feet 1 kilometer = 0.62 miles 
  20. 20. + MASS ANDWEIGHT  Mass and weight are not the same thing. Although we often use the interchangeably, each one has a specific definition and usage.  Mass- measure of the amount of matter in an object.The mass of an object is independent of its location.The basic unit form mass is kilogram (kg) .  Weight- force of attraction between the object and the earth’s gravity.The weight of an object can vary from place to place and changes with its location on the Earth.
  21. 21. + DEVICES USED IN MEASURING UNITS CONVERSION
  22. 22. + TIME Interval between two occurrences.The basic unit for time is second. • 1 minute (60 seconds) • 1 hour (60 minutes, or 3,600 seconds) • 1 day (24 hours, or 86,400 seconds) • 1 week (7 days, or 604,800 seconds) • 1 month (28-31 days, or 2,419,200- 2,678.400 seconds) • 1 year (about 365.25 days, or about 31,557,600 seconds)
  23. 23. + TEMPERATURE  Measure of how hot or cold an object is.The basic unit for temperature is Kelvin.
  24. 24. +  To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit  To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius o C= o F – 32/ 1.8  To convert from Celsius to Kelvin K= o C + 273  To convert from Kelvin to Celsius o C= K - 273 o F= 1.8 (o C) + 32
  25. 25. + Reading temperature in a thermometer
  26. 26. Answers:
  27. 27. + Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000) An easy way to move within the metric system is by moving the decimal point one place for each “step” desired Example: change meters to centimeters 1 meter = 10 decimeters = 100 centimeters or 1.00 meter = 10.0 decimeters = 100. centimeters CONVERTING UNITS: METRIC TO METRIC
  28. 28. + Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000) Now let’s try this example from meters to kilometers: 16093 meters = 1609.3 decameters = 160.93 hectometers = 16.093 kilometers So for every “step” from the base unit to kilo, we moved the decimal 1 place to the left (the same direction as in the diagram below)
  29. 29. + Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000) If you move to the left in the diagram, move the decimal to the left If you move to the right in the diagram, move the decimal to the right
  30. 30. + Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000) Now let’s start from centimeters and convert to kilometers 400000 centimeters = ______kilometers
  31. 31. + Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000) Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)  Now let’s start from meters and convert to centimeters 5 meters = _____ centimeters • Now let’s start from kilometers and convert to meters .3 kilometers = ______ meters
  32. 32. +  A conversion factor is a term that converts a quantity in one unit to a quantity in another unit.  Factor-label method is the process of using conversion factors to convert a quantity in one unit to a quantity in another unit. CONVERTING UNITS: USING THE FACTOR-LABEL METHOD
  33. 33. +  The conversion factor must relate the two quantities in questions. The conversion factor must cancel out the unwanted unit.
  34. 34. + Let’s say we want to convert 130 lb to kilograms. 130 lb X conversion factor= ____ kg Two possible conversion factors: 2.21 lb or 1 kg__ 1 kg 2.21 lb
  35. 35. + 130 lb x 1 kg__ = 59 kg 2.21 lb Pound (lb) must be the denominator to cancel the unwanted unit (lb) in the original quantity.
  36. 36. + TRY… a. 32 inches to centimeter b. 6250 ft to km c. 25 L to dL
  37. 37. + DERIVED UNITS
  38. 38. + AREA amount of two-dimensional space taken up by an object the size of a surface Area of rectangle(A) = length(l) x width(w) Area of circle (A)= π × r2
  39. 39. + This table lists different area units, and values that will help you change units of area measurements:
  40. 40. + VOLUME 1 L = 10 dL 1 L = 1000 mL 1 000 L = 1 m3  1 dL = 100 mL 1 mL = 1 cm3 = 1 cc 1 cc = .001 L 1 L= 1 000 cc
  41. 41. + DENSITY  Mass per unit volume  Units: g/cc , g/cm3 , g/mL  Formula:
  42. 42. + Sample Problem: Calculating Density A piece of beeswax with a volume of 8.50 cm3 is found to have a mass of 8.06 g. What is the density of the beeswax?
  43. 43. + Using Density to find Volume Cobalt is a hard magnetic metal that resembles iron in appearance. It has a density of 8.90 g/cm3 .What volume would 17.8 g of cobalt have?
  44. 44. + Using Density to find Mass Mass is the mass of 19.9 cm3 of coal that has a density of 1.50 g/cm3?
  45. 45. + SCIENTIFIC NOTATION  Scientific notation is a way of expressingScientific notation is a way of expressing really big numbers or really smallreally big numbers or really small numbers.numbers. Scientific Notation always has two parts:  N is the coefficient ( A number between 1 andN is the coefficient ( A number between 1 and 9.9999…)9.9999…)  X is an exponent, which can be any positive orX is an exponent, which can be any positive or negative whole number.negative whole number. N x 10N x 10xx
  46. 46. + Writing Scientific Notation  Place the decimal point so that there isPlace the decimal point so that there is oneone non-zero digit to the left of the decimalnon-zero digit to the left of the decimal point.point.  Count the number of decimal places theCount the number of decimal places the decimal point has “moved” from thedecimal point has “moved” from the original number. This will be the exponentoriginal number. This will be the exponent on the 10.on the 10.  If the original number was less than 1, thenIf the original number was less than 1, then the exponent is negative. If the originalthe exponent is negative. If the original number was greater than 1, then thenumber was greater than 1, then the exponent is positive.exponent is positive.
  47. 47. +
  48. 48. + TRY… Express in Scientific Notation 1. 230 2. 14 100 000 3. 0.00026 4. 0.000000698 5. 0.089
  49. 49. + Change Scientific Notation back to Standard Form  Simply move the decimal point to the right for positiveSimply move the decimal point to the right for positive exponent 10.exponent 10.  Move the decimal point to the left for negative exponent 10.Move the decimal point to the left for negative exponent 10. (Use zeros to fill in places.)(Use zeros to fill in places.)  Example:Example:  Given: 5.093 x 10Given: 5.093 x 1066  Move: 6 places to the right (positive)Move: 6 places to the right (positive)  Answer: 5,093,000Answer: 5,093,000
  50. 50. + TRY… Express in Standard Notation 1. 1.5 x 103 2. 3.4 x 108 3. 6.86 x 10-6 4. 5.822 x 10-5 5. 4.02 x 1010
  51. 51. + OPERATIONS WITH SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
  52. 52. + TRY…
  53. 53. + OPERATIONS WITH SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
  54. 54. + OPERATIONS WITH SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
  55. 55. + TRY…
  56. 56. + SIGNIFICANT FIGURES Number of significant digits that implies the accuracy of measurement
  57. 57. + Determining the number of significant figures Rules: 1.All nonzero digits are significant. 25 L – 2 significant figures 65.2 kg – 3 significant figures
  58. 58. 2. Zeros between two nonzero digits are significant. 29.05 g – 4 significant figures 1.0087 mL – 5 significant figures
  59. 59. 3. Leading zeros are not significant. 0.000000872 miles – 3 significant figures 0.03 mg – 1 significant figure
  60. 60. 4. Trailing zeros in a number containing a decimal point are significant 25.70 lbs – 4 significant figures 708.00 km – 5 significant figures
  61. 61. 5. The trailing zeros in which decimal point is not given/placed indicated that zero/s is/are not significant. 1, 245, 500 m – 5 significant figures 5280 ft – 3 significant figures
  62. 62. + TRY… How many significant figures do each number contain? 1.34.08 L 2.0.0054 mm 3.260.00 g 4.550 miles 5.0.008 mL
  63. 63. 6. 3.7500 cm 7. 1,200,000 miles 8. 23.45 lbs 9. 1, 000, 0034 ft 10. 0.001003 mm
  64. 64. + RULES FOR USING SIGNIFICANT FIGURES IN CALCULATIONS When adding or subtracting significant figures, the answer should have the same number of decimal places as the original number with the fewest decimal places.
  65. 65. + Example: Baby Zayn weighed 3.6 kg at birth and 10.11 kg on his first birthday. How much weight did he gain in his first year of life. 10.11 kg - 3.6 kg 6. 51 kg •The answer can have only one digit after the decimal point. •Round 6.51 to 6.5 •Baby Zayn gained 6.5 kg during his first year of life.
  66. 66. + RULES FOR USING SIGNIFICANT FIGURES IN CALCULATIONS When multiplying or dividing significant figures, the answer should have the same number of significant figures as the original number with the fewest significant figures.
  67. 67. + TRY… Solve the following and write you answer in correct significant figure. 1. 8.937 + 8.930= 2. 0.00015 x 54.6= 3. 847.89 - 847.73= 4. 3.2 / 1.60 = 5. 7.1 x 10=

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