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- 1. <ul><li>To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects </li></ul><ul><li>select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” </li></ul><ul><li>To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar . </li></ul><ul><li>From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. </li></ul><ul><li>From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key . </li></ul>How to Use This Presentation
- 2. Resources Chapter Presentation Image Bank Math Focus Bellringers Standards Assessment Visual Concepts
- 3. Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1 Forming New Substances </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 Chemical Formulas and Equations </li></ul>Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions
- 4. Bellringer <ul><li>The formation of water from its elements may be represented as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>What elements are present in water? How many atoms of each element are shown in the reactants? How many atoms of each element are shown in the products? </li></ul><ul><li>The representation 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O is called a chemical equation. Why do you think that the numbers of atoms do not change? Write your answers in your Science Journal. </li></ul>Section 1 Forming New Substances Chapter 9
- 5. What You Will Learn <ul><li>Four signs that indicate that a chemical reaction may be taking place are a change in color, the formation of a gas, the formation of a precipitate, and a change in energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions produce new substances whose chemical and physical properties differ from the properties of the original substances. </li></ul><ul><li>In a chemical reaction, chemical bonds break and atoms rearrange. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions absorb or release energy. </li></ul>Chapter 9 Section 1 Forming New Substances
- 6. Combining Atoms Through Chemical Bonding <ul><li>Chemical bonding is the joining of atoms to form new substances. </li></ul><ul><li>An interaction that holds two atoms together is called a chemical bond. </li></ul><ul><li>When chemical bonds form when electrons are shared ( covalent and metallic bonds ), </li></ul><ul><li>or when electrons are gained, or lost ( ionic bonds ). </li></ul>Section 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
- 7. Chemical Reactions <ul><li>A chemical reaction is a process in which one or more substances change to make one or more new substances. </li></ul><ul><li>The chemical and physical properties of the new substances that form in a chemical reaction differ from those of the original substances. </li></ul>Chapter 9 Section 1 Forming New Substances
- 8. Chemical Reactions , continued <ul><li>Signs that indicate a chemical reaction may be taking place are a color change, formation of a gas or a solid, and the release or absorption of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution is called a precipitate. </li></ul>Chapter 9 Section 1 Forming New Substances
- 9. Precipitate Chemical Reactions Chapter 9
- 10. Chemical Reactions , continued <ul><li>Even though the signs that indicate a chemical reaction is taking place are good signals of chemical reactions, they do not always guarantee that a reaction is happening. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important sign that a chemical reaction has taken place is the formation of new substances that have new properties. </li></ul>Chapter 9 Section 1 Forming New Substances
- 11. Bonds: Holding Molecules Together <ul><li>A chemical bond is a force that holds two atoms together in a molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>For a chemical reaction to take place, the chemical bonds in the starting substances must break. The atoms then rearrange, and new bonds form to make new substances. </li></ul>Chapter 9 Section 1 Forming New Substances
- 12. Chemical Reactions Chapter 9
- 13. Reactions and Energy <ul><li>Energy is needed to break chemical bonds in the starting substances. (atoms bump into each other with enough force to break the bond). </li></ul><ul><li>As new bonds form in the final substances, energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical reaction in which energy is released is called an exothermic reaction. Exothermic reactions can give off energy in several forms. </li></ul>Chapter 9 Section 1 Forming New Substances
- 14. Reactions and Energy , continued <ul><li>A chemical reaction in which energy is taken in is called an endothermic reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy taken in during an endothermic reaction is absorbed from the surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis is an example of an endothermic process. </li></ul>Chapter 9 Section 1 Forming New Substances
- 15. Reactions and Energy , continued <ul><li>Neither mass nor energy can be created or destroyed in chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can change from one form to another. </li></ul>Chapter 9 Section 1 Forming New Substances
- 16. Law of Conservation of Energy Chemical Reactions Chapter 9
- 17. Bellringer <ul><li>Look at the following formulas for chemical compounds, and identify the elements in each formula. </li></ul><ul><li>NaCl KBr C 12 H 22 O 11 </li></ul><ul><li>NH 3 SiF 4 Fe(NO 3 ) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O 2 MgSO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>What is the name and symbol of each element? How many atom of each element are present in each compound? </li></ul><ul><li>Write your answers in your Science Journal. </li></ul>Section 2 Chemical Formulas and Equations Chapter 9
- 18. What You Will Learn <ul><li>Chemical formulas are a simple way to describe which elements are in a chemical substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical equations are a concise way to write how atoms are rearranged in a chemical reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>A balanced chemical equation shows the law of conservation of mass. </li></ul>Section 2 Chemical Formulas and Equations Chapter 9
- 19. Chemical Formulas <ul><li>A chemical formula is a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance. </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical formula shows how many atoms of each kind of element are present in a molecule . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: NaCl, H 2 O, NH 3 </li></ul>Section 2 Chemical Formulas and Equations Chapter 9
- 20. Chemical Formulas , continued
- 21. Chemical Reactions Chapter 9
- 22. Chemical Equations <ul><li>A chemical equation uses chemical formulas, chemical symbols, and coefficients to describe a reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: C + O 2 CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants. The starting materials in a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Products. The substances formed from a reaction </li></ul>Section 2 Chemical Formulas and Equations Chapter 9
- 23. Chemical Equations , continued <ul><li>A chemical equation that has a wrong chemical symbol or formula will not describe the reaction correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>The total number of atoms of each element in the reactants must equal the total number of atoms of that element in the products . </li></ul><ul><li>This process is called balancing the equation. </li></ul>Section 2 Chemical Formulas and Equations Chapter 9
- 24. Chemical Equation Chemical Reactions Chapter 9
- 25. Chemical Equations , continued <ul><li>The law of conservation of mass states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes. </li></ul><ul><li>This law means that the total mass of the reactants is the same as the total mass of the products. </li></ul>Section 2 Chemical Formulas and Equations Chapter 9
- 26. Law of Conservation of Mass Chemical Reactions Chapter 9
- 27. Chemical Equations , continued <ul><li>A coefficient is a number that is placed in front of a chemical symbol or formula. </li></ul>Section 2 Chemical Formulas and Equations Chapter 9
- 28. Chemical Equations , continued <ul><li>To balance an equation, change the coefficients—not the subscripts. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the subscripts in the formula of a compound changes the compound. </li></ul>Section 2 Chemical Formulas and Equations Chapter 9
- 29. Chemical Equations , continued
- 30. Balancing Chemical Equations <ul><li>1. Count the atoms of each element in the reactants and in the products. </li></ul><ul><li>If the number of atoms of each element do not match, the equation must be balanced </li></ul>
- 31. Balancing Chemical Equations
- 32. Balancing Chemical Equations <ul><li>2. Place the needed coefficient in front of the molecule so that it gives the same amount of atoms in the reactants and products. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Recount the atoms to check if the equation is balanced. If it is not continue to add coefficients and keep counting until the equation is balanced. </li></ul>
- 33. Balancing Chemical Equations
- 34. Balancing Chemical Equations
- 35. Balancing Chemical Equations <ul><li>Try to balance the chemical equations below: </li></ul><ul><li>Na + O 2 Na 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 + H 2 NH 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mg + HCl MgCl 2 + H 2 </li></ul>
- 36. Answers: <ul><li>Check your answers: </li></ul><ul><li>4 Na + O 2 2 Na 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 + 2 H 2 2 NH 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mg + 2 HCl MgCl 2 + H 2 </li></ul>
- 37. Concept Map Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. products reactants chemical equations coefficients chemical reactions chemical formulas
- 38. Chemical Reactions Chapter 9 Concept Map
- 39. Chemical Reactions Chapter 9 Concept Map
- 40. End of Chapter 9 Show Chemical Reactions Chapter 9
- 41. <ul><li>1. In the sentence “She wrote a chemical formula that showed the parts of the compound,” what does the word compound mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. a group of buildings set off and enclosed by a barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. a word that consists of two or more elements or parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. a substance made up of two or more elements that are joined by chemical bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. a leaf whose blade is divided into at least two leaflets </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 42. <ul><li>1. In the sentence “She wrote a chemical formula that showed the parts of the compound,” what does the word compound mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. a group of buildings set off and enclosed by a barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. a word that consists of two or more elements or parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. a substance made up of two or more elements that are joined by chemical bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. a leaf whose blade is divided into at least two leaflets </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 43. <ul><li>2. Choose the appropriate form of the word react for the following sentence: “When an atom has one electron in its outer energy level, it _____easily with other atoms.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. reacting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. reactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. reacts </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 44. <ul><li>2. Choose the appropriate form of the word react for the following sentence: “When an atom has one electron in its outer energy level, it _____easily with other atoms.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. reacting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. reactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. reacts </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 45. <ul><li>3. Which of the following phrases means “a process that changes a substance into another substance”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. chemical reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. physical process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. atomic structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. buoyant force </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 46. <ul><li>3. Which of the following phrases means “a process that changes a substance into another substance”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. chemical reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. physical process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. atomic structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. buoyant force </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 47. <ul><li>4. Which of the following words or phrases is the closest in meaning to the word identify ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. observe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. pick out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. acquire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. ask </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 48. <ul><li>4. Which of the following words or phrases is the closest in meaning to the word identify ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. observe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. pick out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. acquire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. ask </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 49. <ul><li>Use the diagram below to answer the next question. </li></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 50. <ul><li>5. The model above shows the reaction of hydrogen and chlorine. Which of the following best describes the result of the reaction shown in the model? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Four new diatomic molecules form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Bonds are formed between two hydrogen atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. The properties of the new molecules are the same as those of the original molecules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Two molecules of a new compound are formed. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 51. <ul><li>5. The model above shows the reaction of hydrogen and chlorine. Which of the following best describes the result of the reaction shown in the model? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Four new diatomic molecules form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Bonds are formed between two hydrogen atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. The properties of the new molecules are the same as those of the original molecules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Two molecules of a new compound are formed. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 52. <ul><li>6. Which of the following contains one oxygen atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. 2N 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Co </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 53. <ul><li>6. Which of the following contains one oxygen atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. 2N 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Co </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 54. <ul><li>7. Atoms are never lost or gained during a chemical reaction. They are just </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. rearranged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. changed into other atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. corrected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. converted. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 55. <ul><li>7. Atoms are never lost or gained during a chemical reaction. They are just </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. rearranged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. changed into other atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. corrected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. converted. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 56. <ul><li>8. Which chemical equation correctly shows the formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. H 2 + O 2 H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. H 2 + 2O H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. H + O 2 H 2 O </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 57. <ul><li>8. Which chemical equation correctly shows the formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. H 2 + O 2 H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. H 2 + 2O H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. H + O 2 H 2 O </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 58. <ul><li>9. According to the periodic table, what is the chemical makeup of the compound MgCl 2 ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. the elements manganese and chromium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. the elements mendelevium and chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. the elements magnesium and chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. the elements molybdenum and carbon </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 59. <ul><li>9. According to the periodic table, what is the chemical makeup of the compound MgCl 2 ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. the elements manganese and chromium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. the elements mendelevium and chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. the elements magnesium and chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. the elements molybdenum and carbon </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 60. <ul><li>10. Use the periodic table to locate the elements Na and Cl. What type of compound is created when these two elements react? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. isotopic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. covalent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. ionic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. metallic </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 61. <ul><li>10. Use the periodic table to locate the elements Na and Cl. What type of compound is created when these two elements react? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. isotopic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. covalent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. ionic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. metallic </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 62. <ul><li>11. Ammonium sulfate has the chemical formula (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . How many atoms does one unit of ammonium sulfate contain? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. 7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. 15 </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 63. <ul><li>11. Ammonium sulfate has the chemical formula (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . How many atoms does one unit of ammonium sulfate contain? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. 7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. 15 </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 64. <ul><li>12. Chemical reactions are endothermic or exothermic. Which of the following is an example of an endothermic reaction? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Ice absorbs energy and melts to form liquid water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Wood burns and releases light and heat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Fireworks explode and release light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Water absorbs energy and decomposes to form hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 65. <ul><li>12. Chemical reactions are endothermic or exothermic. Which of the following is an example of an endothermic reaction? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Ice absorbs energy and melts to form liquid water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Wood burns and releases light and heat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Fireworks explode and release light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Water absorbs energy and decomposes to form hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 66. <ul><li>13. According to the periodic table, what is the atomic number of zinc, Zn? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. 2.018 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. 65.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. 19,620 </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 67. <ul><li>13. According to the periodic table, what is the atomic number of zinc, Zn? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. 2.018 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. 65.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. 19,620 </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 68. <ul><li>14. A cake is an example of a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. compound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. mixture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. nonmetal. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 69. <ul><li>14. A cake is an example of a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. compound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. mixture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. nonmetal. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 70. <ul><li>Use the diagram below to answer the next question. </li></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 71. <ul><li>15. Which of the following best describes the liquids in the graduated cylinder? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Of the six liquids, corn oil is the least dense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. The density of the liquids increases from maple syrup to corn oil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. The density of the top layers holds down less-dense liquids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Of the six liquids, maple syrup is the least dense. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 72. <ul><li>15. Which of the following best describes the liquids in the graduated cylinder? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Of the six liquids, corn oil is the least dense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. The density of the liquids increases from maple syrup to corn oil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. The density of the top layers holds down less-dense liquids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Of the six liquids, maple syrup is the least dense. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9 Standards Assessment
- 73. Chapter 9

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