Doing Science


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Chapter 1:2. Doing Science

2.1. Examine the steps used to solve a problem in a scientific way

2.2. Explain how a well designed investigation is developed

2.3. Differentiate between scientific theory and scientific law

2.4. Explain what scientific literacy is and why it is important.

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  • Cinda, these next two were supposed to be on one slide, but they obviously didn’t fit. I’m not sure where the picture should go.
  • Doing Science

    1. 1. Chapter: The Nature of Science Section 3: Science and Technology Section 1: What is science? Section 2: Doing Science 2
    2. 2. Solving Problems—Identify the Problem <ul><li>Although the investigation of each problem is different, scientists use some steps in all investigations. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists first make sure that everyone working to solve the problem has a clear understanding of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, scientists find that the problem is easy to identify or that several problems need to be solved. </li></ul>Doing Science 2
    3. 3. How can the problem be solved? <ul><li>Two of the methods used to answer questions are descriptive research and experimental research design. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through the use of a series of carefully controlled steps. </li></ul>Doing Science 2
    4. 4. How can the problem be solved? <ul><li>Scientific methods are ways, or steps to follow, to try to solve problems. </li></ul>Doing Science 2
    5. 5. Descriptive Research <ul><li>Some scientific problems can be solved, or questions answered, by using descriptive research. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Descriptive research is based mostly on observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive research can be used in investigations when experiments would be impossible to perform. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive research usually involves the following steps. </li></ul>
    6. 6. 1. State the Research Objective (on the right) <ul><li>This is the first step in solving a problem using descriptive research. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>A research objective is what you want to find out , or what question you would like to answer. </li></ul>
    7. 7. 2. Describe the Research Design <ul><li>How will you carry out your investigation? How will the data be recorded and analyzed? </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>An important part of any research design is safety . </li></ul><ul><li>These are a few of the things scientists think about when they </li></ul>design an investigation using descriptive research.
    8. 8. Describe the Research Design <ul><li>While investigating a cholera outbreak in the 1800s, Dr. John Snow, included the map in his research design. </li></ul>Doing Science 2
    9. 9. Describe the Research Design Doing Science 2 <ul><li>He used these data to predict that the water from the Broad Street pump was the source of the contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>The map showed where people with cholera had lived, and where they obtained their water. </li></ul>
    10. 10. 3. Eliminate Bias <ul><li>Sometimes, scientists might expect certain results. This is known as bias . </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Good investigations avoid bias. </li></ul><ul><li>One way to avoid bias is to use careful numerical measurements for all data. </li></ul><ul><li>Another type of bias can occur in surveys or groups that are chosen for investigations. </li></ul><ul><li>To get an accurate result, you need to use a random sample. </li></ul>
    11. 11. 4. Equipment, Materials, and Models <ul><li>When a scientific problem is solved by descriptive research, the equipment and materials used to carry out the investigation and analyze the data are important. </li></ul>Doing Science 2
    12. 12. 5. Selecting Your Materials <ul><li>Scientists try to use the most up-to-date materials available to them. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>If possible, you should use scientific equipment such as balances, spring sales, microscopes, and metric measurements when performing investigations and gathering data. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Selecting Your Materials Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Calculators and computers can be helpful in </li></ul>evaluating or displaying data.
    14. 14. Selecting Your Materials <ul><li>However, you don’t have to have the latest or most expensive materials and tools to conduct good scientific investigations. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Your investigations can be completed successfully and the data displayed with materials found in your home or classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>An organized presentation of data is as effective as a computer graphic or an extravagant display. </li></ul>
    15. 15. 6. Using Models <ul><li>One part of carrying out the investigation plan might include making or using scientific models. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>In math/science, models are used for things that happen too slowly, too quickly, or are too big or too small to observe directly . </li></ul><ul><li>Models also are useful in situations in which direct observation would be too dangerous or expensive . </li></ul>
    16. 16. Using Models <ul><li>Dr. John Snow’s map of the cholera epidemic was a model that allowed him to predict possible sources of the epidemic. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Many kinds of models are made on computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs, tables, and spreadsheets are models that display information. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Scientific Methods Doing Science 2 <ul><li>This common language allows them to understand each other’s research and compare results. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists around the world use a system of measurements called the International </li></ul>System of Units, or SI , to make observations.
    18. 18. Scientific Methods <ul><li>Because SI uses certain metric units that are based on units of ten, multiplication and division are easy to do. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Prefixes are used with units to change their names to larger or smaller units. </li></ul><ul><li>K H D U D C M </li></ul>
    19. 19. Data — Designing Your Data Tables <ul><li>A well-planned investigation includes ways to record results and observations accurately. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Data tables are one way to do this. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Most tables have a title that tells you at a glance what the table is about. </li></ul><ul><li>The table is divided into columns and rows. These are usually trials or characteristics to be compared. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science 2 <ul><li>The first row contains the titles of the columns. </li></ul><ul><li>The first column identifies what each row represents. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Analyze Your Data <ul><li>Your data must be organized to analyze them. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Charts and graphs are excellent ways to organize data. </li></ul><ul><li>You can draw the charts and graphs or use a computer to make them. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Draw Conclusions <ul><li>After you have organized your data, you are ready to draw a conclusion. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Sometimes, your data are not what you expected, but remember, scientists understand that it is important to know when something doesn’t work . </li></ul><ul><li>A successful investigation is not always the one that comes out the way you originally predicted. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Communicating Your Results <ul><li>Every investigation begins because a problem needs to be solved. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Analyzing data and drawing conclusions are the end of the investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, scientists communicate their results to other scientists, government agencies, private industries, or the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists usually publish their most important findings. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Communicating Your Results <ul><li>You can communicate your data and conclusions to other members of your science class. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Organized data and careful analysis will enable you to answer most questions and to discuss your work confidently. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing and sharing data are important parts of descriptive and experimental research. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Experimental Research Design <ul><li>Another way to solve scientific problems is through experimentation. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Experimental research design answers scientific questions by observation of a controlled situation . </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental research design includes several steps. </li></ul>
    27. 27. 1. Form a Hypothesis (on the right) <ul><li>A hypothesis (hi PAH thuh sus) is a prediction, or statement, that can be tested. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>You use your prior knowledge, new </li></ul>information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis.
    28. 28. 2. Variables <ul><li>In well-planned experiments, one factor, or variable, is changed at a time. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>This means that the variable is controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>The variable that is changed is called the independent variable . </li></ul><ul><li>A dependant variable is the factor being measured . </li></ul>
    29. 29. Variables <ul><li>To test which of two antibiotics will kill a type of bacterium, you must make sure that every variable remains the same but the type of antibiotic. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>The dependant variable is the growth of the bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>In this experiment, the independent variable is </li></ul>the amount or type of antibiotic applied to the bacteria.
    30. 30. Variables <ul><li>The variables that stay the same are called constants . </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>You cannot run the experiments at two different room temperatures, for different lengths of time, or with different amounts of antibiotics. </li></ul>
    31. 31. 3. Identify Controls <ul><li>Your experiment will not be valid unless a control is used. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>A control is a sample that is treated like the other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it . </li></ul>
    32. 32. Identify Controls Doing Science 2 <ul><li>In the experiment with antibiotics, your control is a sample of bacteria that is not treated with either antibiotic. </li></ul><ul><li>The control shows how the bacteria grow when left untreated by either antibiotic. </li></ul>
    33. 33. 4. Number of Trials <ul><li>Experiments done the same way do not always have the same results. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>To make sure that your results are valid, you need to conduct several trials of your experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple trials mean that an unusual outcome of the experiment won’t be considered the true result. </li></ul><ul><li>The more trials you do using the same methods, the more likely it is that your results will be reliable and repeatable. </li></ul>
    34. 34. 5. Analyze Your Results <ul><li>When you analyze your results, you can see if your data support your hypothesis. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>If the data do not support your original hypothesis, you can still learn from the experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments that don’t work out as you had planned can still provide valuable information. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional scientists rarely have results that support their hypothesis without completing numerous trials first. </li></ul>
    35. 35. 2 Section Check Question 1 Which answers scientific questions through observation? A. descriptive research B. experimental research design C. educated guessing D. hypothesizing NC: 1.05
    36. 36. 2 Section Check Answer The answer is A. Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observations while experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through a series a carefully controlled steps. NC: 1.05
    37. 37. 2 Section Check Question 2 What is the first step in solving problems? A. analyze data B. draw conclusion C. form a hypothesis D. identify the problem NC: 1.01
    38. 38. 2 Section Check Answer The answer is D. Having a clear understanding of the problem is the first step in problem solving. NC: 1.01
    39. 39. 2 Section Check Question 3 A _______ is a prediction or statement that can be tested. Answer The answer is hypothesis. You use your prior knowledge, new information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis. NC: 1.01