Metaschool Module 3.3
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  • 15/03/10

Metaschool Module 3.3 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Co-funded by the European Union , through the Comenius Programme Introduction to the Concept of Learning Objects
  • 2. Structure
  • 3. Structure
    • Introduction
    • Learning Objects
    • More references
    • Conclusions
  • 4. Introduction
    • This presentetion will introduce teachers to the concept of different sources for learning resources (web-based; achieves; museum websites); introduce different types of learning resources (e.g. drill and practice; lesson plans) and different formats of learning resources (e.g. website, word document, pdf, video, sound)
  • 5. What is learning object?
    • any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning (IEEE LTSC, 2002)
    • any digital resource that can be reused to support learning (Wiley, 2000)
    • can include anything that has pedagogical value - digital or no-digital such as a case study, a film … (Karman & Koohang, 2005)
    Src: McGreal, R. (2004). What is learning object? (1/2)
  • 6.
    • any reusable digital resource that is encapsulated in a lesson or assemblage of lessons grouped in units, modules, courses, and even programs (McGreal,2004)
    • digital resource in any size and format which can be online accessible and reusable in teaching and learning via online networked environments in order to achieve the desired learning outcomes or educational objectives (Nash, 2005)
    What is learning object? (2/2)
  • 7. Google Altavista Lycos Alltheweb Yahoo Excite … Search engines Directories Portals “ circular motion”
    • -too many results
    • -HTML,HTML,HTML
    • no learning purposes
    • no educational properties
    • no review for quality assurance
    Google: 4.200.000 results ? Why LORs? a typical example
  • 8. Online Resources vs Learning Objects
    • Learning Objects are unique because they:
    • address a single concept
    • require the teacher to:
      • position the learner
      • create a context
    • are inclusive e.g.: gender, race, bias
    • have metadata attached
  • 9.
    • Tutor Driven
      • Maximise resources – makes sharing easy
      • Economy of Time – saves reinventing the wheel
      • Allows transfer between different learning platforms
      • Creation of differentiated and personalised resources
      • Allows convenient storage in a repository
            • (Will Steward, 2004)
    Why LORs? (1/2)
  • 10.
    • Learner Driven
      • Appropriate levels
      • Individualised learning programmes
      • Learning styles
      • Accessibility
      • Variety of materials
            • (Will Steward, 2004)
    Why LORs? (2/2)
  • 11. Describing Learning Objects
    • How it works: you get a bunch of learning objects and put them in a database
    • You then tag these objects using (say) IEEE-LOM or CanCore
    • The content of these tags – typical age range, classification, interactivity – are used as parameters in a search
  • 12. How can teachers incorporate Learning Objects? Starting Point A I’ve got a LO, what learning outcomes or activities can it be used to achieve? Starting Point B This is what I want my students to learn, which LO will be useful in achieving this?
  • 13. Learning Object Metadata (1/2)
    • The following is a list of some of the types of information that may be included in a learning object and its metadata:
      • General Course Descriptive Data, including: course identifiers, language of content (English, Spanish, etc.), subject area (Maths, Reading, etc.), descriptive text, descriptive keywords
      • Life Cycle, including: version, status
      • Instructional Content, including: text, web pages, images, sound, video
  • 14. Learning Object Metadata (2/2)
      • Glossary of Terms, including: terms, definition, acronyms
      • Quizzes and Assessments, including: questions, answers
      • Rights, including: cost, copyrights, restrictions on Use
      • Relationships to Other Courses, including prerequisite courses
      • Educational Level, including: grade level, age range, typical learning time, and difficulty.
        • [IEEE 1484.12.1:2002]
  • 15. Different Types of Learning Resources
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21. Learning Object Metadata Use
    • We think of metadata as describing the contents of a learning object, like the label on a can, and that’s partially true. But…
    • Learning Object metadata doesn’t describe an object, it describes a use of an object
    • That is why we need multiple metadata schemes, because we have multiple uses
  • 22. More r eferences (1/2)
    • Beck, Robert J. (2009), "What Are Learning Objects?", Learning Objects, Center for International Education, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee .
    • Learning Technology Standards Committee (2002) (PDF), Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata. IEEE Standard 1484.12.1 , New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
    • Rehak, Daniel R.; Mason, Robin (2003), "Engaging with the Learning Object Economy", in Littlejohn, Allison, Reusing Online Resources: A Sustainable Approach to E-Learning , London: Kogan Page, pp. 22–30.
  • 23. More r eferences (2/2)
    • Shaw, Michael (October, 2003), "(Contextual and Mutated) Learning Objects in the Context of Design, Learning and (Re)Use", Teaching and Learning with Technology .
    • Wiley, David A. (2000), "Connecting Learning Objects to Instructional Design Theory: A Definition, A Metaphor, and A Taxonomy", in Wiley, David A. (DOC), The Instructional Use of Learning Objects: Online Version .
    • Chiappe, Andres.; Segovia, Yasbley; Rincon, Yadira (2007), "Toward an instructional design model based on learning objects", in Boston, Springer (html), Educational Technology Research and Development , Boston: Springer, pp. 671–681 .
  • 24. Conclusions
    • Creating learning resources in object formats is seen as way to bring about increased flexibility, customization, ease of update, searchability, and manageability to rich stores of content and learning resources that are available from publishers or that have been created by faculty members or teachers. After the end of this presentetion the participants will have the opportunity through conducting specially designed mini-projects to further apply what they have learnt by producing educational resources following the learning objects paradigm.