This presentetion will introduce teachers to the concept of different sources for learning resources (web-based; achieves; museum websites); introduce different types of learning resources (e.g. drill and practice; lesson plans) and different formats of learning resources (e.g. website, word document, pdf, video, sound)
What is learning object?
any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning (IEEE LTSC, 2002)
any digital resource that can be reused to support learning (Wiley, 2000)
can include anything that has pedagogical value - digital or no-digital such as a case study, a film … (Karman & Koohang, 2005)
Src: McGreal, R. (2004). What is learning object? (1/2)
any reusable digital resource that is encapsulated in a lesson or assemblage of lessons grouped in units, modules, courses, and even programs (McGreal,2004)
digital resource in any size and format which can be online accessible and reusable in teaching and learning via online networked environments in order to achieve the desired learning outcomes or educational objectives (Nash, 2005)
Google: 4.200.000 results ? Why LORs? a typical example
Online Resources vs Learning Objects
Learning Objects are unique because they:
address a single concept
require the teacher to:
position the learner
create a context
are inclusive e.g.: gender, race, bias
have metadata attached
Maximise resources – makes sharing easy
Economy of Time – saves reinventing the wheel
Allows transfer between different learning platforms
Creation of differentiated and personalised resources
Allows convenient storage in a repository
(Will Steward, 2004)
Why LORs? (1/2)
Individualised learning programmes
Variety of materials
(Will Steward, 2004)
Why LORs? (2/2)
Describing Learning Objects
How it works: you get a bunch of learning objects and put them in a database
You then tag these objects using (say) IEEE-LOM or CanCore
The content of these tags – typical age range, classification, interactivity – are used as parameters in a search
How can teachers incorporate Learning Objects? Starting Point A I’ve got a LO, what learning outcomes or activities can it be used to achieve? Starting Point B This is what I want my students to learn, which LO will be useful in achieving this?
Learning Object Metadata (1/2)
The following is a list of some of the types of information that may be included in a learning object and its metadata:
General Course Descriptive Data, including: course identifiers, language of content (English, Spanish, etc.), subject area (Maths, Reading, etc.), descriptive text, descriptive keywords
Life Cycle, including: version, status
Instructional Content, including: text, web pages, images, sound, video
Learning Object Metadata (2/2)
Glossary of Terms, including: terms, definition, acronyms
Quizzes and Assessments, including: questions, answers
Rights, including: cost, copyrights, restrictions on Use
Relationships to Other Courses, including prerequisite courses
Educational Level, including: grade level, age range, typical learning time, and difficulty.
Different Types of Learning Resources
Learning Object Metadata Use
We think of metadata as describing the contents of a learning object, like the label on a can, and that’s partially true. But…
Learning Object metadata doesn’t describe an object, it describes a use of an object
That is why we need multiple metadata schemes, because we have multiple uses
More r eferences (1/2)
Beck, Robert J. (2009), "What Are Learning Objects?", Learning Objects, Center for International Education, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee .
Learning Technology Standards Committee (2002) (PDF), Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata. IEEE Standard 1484.12.1 , New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Rehak, Daniel R.; Mason, Robin (2003), "Engaging with the Learning Object Economy", in Littlejohn, Allison, Reusing Online Resources: A Sustainable Approach to E-Learning , London: Kogan Page, pp. 22–30.
More r eferences (2/2)
Shaw, Michael (October, 2003), "(Contextual and Mutated) Learning Objects in the Context of Design, Learning and (Re)Use", Teaching and Learning with Technology .
Wiley, David A. (2000), "Connecting Learning Objects to Instructional Design Theory: A Definition, A Metaphor, and A Taxonomy", in Wiley, David A. (DOC), The Instructional Use of Learning Objects: Online Version .
Chiappe, Andres.; Segovia, Yasbley; Rincon, Yadira (2007), "Toward an instructional design model based on learning objects", in Boston, Springer (html), Educational Technology Research and Development , Boston: Springer, pp. 671–681 .
Creating learning resources in object formats is seen as way to bring about increased flexibility, customization, ease of update, searchability, and manageability to rich stores of content and learning resources that are available from publishers or that have been created by faculty members or teachers. After the end of this presentetion the participants will have the opportunity through conducting specially designed mini-projects to further apply what they have learnt by producing educational resources following the learning objects paradigm.