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The phrase

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  • 1. The Phrase
    • A phrase is a group of related words. It does NOT create a sentence.
  • 2. Kinds of Phrases
    • Verb phrase
    • Prepositional phrase
      • Adjective phrase
      • Adverb phrase
      • and
    • Appositive phrase
    • also coming up… VERBAL phrases…
  • 3. The Verb Phrase
    • A verb phrase consists of at least one main verb and one or more helping verbs. A helping verb (also called an auxiliary verb ) helps the main verb express action or a state of being.
    is leaving
  • 4. Besides of all forms of the verb be , the following verbs can be used as helping verbs:
  • 5. Notice how the helping verbs work together with the main verbs to form complete verb phrases .
    • Would you like some soup?
    • You should have offered sooner.
    • We shall probably be finished in an hour.
    • She was always thinking of her future.
    • Has my sister shown you her newest painting?
    • She shouldn’t have borrowed that necklace.
  • 6. The Prepositional Phrase…
    • … is a group of words beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun (the OP ).
    • in my hair
    • on the floor
    • next to the tree
    • beyond the forest
    • beneath the bridge
    • according to my mother
  • 7. The anatomy (pattern) of a Prepositional Phrase:
    • (with a friend)
    • or
    • (with my parents)
    OP OP
  • 8. other possibilities are…
    • (to me)
    • Or
    • ( Because of the very fun lesson)
    OP OP
  • 9. Identifying kinds of prepositional phrases: Prepositional Phrase Adjective Phrase Adverb Phrase
  • 10. ADJECTIVE PHRASES
    • Definition : a prepositional phrase used as an adjective .
    • Examples:
    • The boy with red hair is sitting next to me.
    • The girl sat next to the wall with windows
  • 11. ADJECTIVE PHRASES…
    • 1. answer the questions: “ which one ?” or “ what kind ?”
    • 2. always come after the nouns they modify
    • 3. are ALWAYS after a subject
    • 4. never begin a sentence
    • 5. never come right after a verb
  • 12. Find the ADJECTIVE PHRASES in the following sentences:
    • The man in the story had no friends.
    • Scrooge was the man in the story.
    • Scrooge was a friend to Marley.
    • Scrooge hated charity of any kind.
    • Marley became a ghost with clanking chains.
    • Marley frightened Scrooge when he came to visit.
  • 13. ANSWERS:
    • The man in the story had no friends.
    • Scrooge was the man in the story .
    • Scrooge was a friend to Marley .
    • Scrooge hated charity of any kind .
    • Marley became a ghost with clanking chains .
    • Marley frightened Scrooge when he came to visit.
  • 14. Find the ADJECTIVE PHRASES in the following sentences:
    • During the night, a fire truck came down my street.
    • A fire truck came down my street during the night.
    • Sid dropped his pencil on the sidewalk.
    • The cat in the tree suddenly meowed with all its might.
  • 15. ANSWERS:
    • During the night, a fire truck came down my street.
    • A fire truck came down my street during the night.
    • Sid dropped his pencil on the sidewalk.
    • The cat in the tree suddenly meowed with all its might.
  • 16. Find the ADJECTIVE PHRASES in the following sentences:
    • Sandy didn’t know about the computer experiment in the lab.
    • In a flash, the twins were transported to another world.
    • The short man in the wilderness seemed afraid of the twins at first.
    • The twins sat down and wondered where they were.
  • 17. ANSWERS:
    • Sandy didn’t know about the computer experiment in the lab .
    • In a flash, the twins were transported to another world.
    • The small man in the wilderness seemed afraid of the twins at first.
    • The twins sat down and wondered where they were.
  • 18. ADVERB PHRASES
    • Definition : a prepositional phrase used as an adverb .
    • Examples:
    • I sat with Sally at the seashore .
    • We fished for hours .
    • I dropped my coke can into the water .
    • In the spring I go to the beach .
  • 19. The truth about adverb phrases: They…
    • … can begin a sentence
    • 2. …will not immediately follow the subject
    • 3. …can follow VERBS , ADVERBS and ADJECTIVES (and modify them)
    • 4. …answer questions like: “ when ?” “ where ?” “ why ?” “ how ?”
  • 20. THINK LOGICALLY…
    • There are only two kinds of prepositional phrases :
        • ADJECTIVE and ADVERB
    • If a phrase is not ADJECTIVE , then it must be ADVERB !
  • 21. Find the adverb phrases:
    • For many years, Scrooge and Marley were business partners.
    • Scrooge ran his business in a miserly way.
    • Bob Cratchit worked for Scrooge.
    • Bob had very little heat while he worked.
    • Scrooge and Marley had been partners for many years.
  • 22. ANSWERS:
    • For many years , Scrooge and Marley were business partners.
    • Scrooge ran his business in a miserly way .
    • Bob Cratchit worked for Scrooge .
    • Bob had very little heat while he worked.
    • Scrooge and Marley had been partners for many years .
  • 23. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases:
    • When my dad was young, he had a little transistor radio that he kept by his bed to listen to music.
    • “ When you wish upon a star, your dreams come true.”
  • 24. ANSWERS:
    • When my dad was young, he had a little transistor radio that he kept by his bed to listen to music .
    • “ When you wish upon a star , your dreams come true.”
  • 25. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases:
    • What’s the matter with my clothes?
    • In the middle of the floor was a pile of dirty clothes.
    • While you clean up this mess, I will go to the store and buy some new clothes.
    • Since last May, you have worn those same jeans for days and days.
    • With a little bit of luck, you will get to go to the mall.
  • 26. ANSWERS:
    • What’s the matter with my clothes ?
    • In the middle of the floor was a pile of dirty clothes .
    • While you clean up this mess, I will go to the store and buy some new clothes.
    • Since last May , you have worn those same jeans for days and days .
    • With a little bit of luck , you will get to go to the mall.
  • 27. The Appositive Phrase
    • First you must know what an appositive is….
    • DEFINITION : An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or explain it.
    • It works mostly like this:
    • Barack Obama , the president , spoke to the graduating class.
    • Barack Obama = president (appositive)
  • 28. The Appositive Phrase
    • … is centered around a noun
        • Bob, a boy in my class , sits next to me.
    • B. …renames another noun in the main sentence.
        • Bob is renamed with boy .
    • … can be removed from the sentence.
        • Bob sat next to me.
  • 29. The Appositive Phrase
    • D. ...will be surrounded by commas 99% of the time.
        • Bob, my friend , is nice.
        • My friend Bob is nice.
    • E. …will most likely come after the noun it renames.
        • Bob, my best friend , is nice.
        • A friend at all times, Bob is always there.
          • [Sometimes, in rare occasions, it comes before the noun.]
  • 30. The Appositive Phrase
    • F. …will not begin with a pronoun like “ who ,” “ which ,” “ whose ,” “ that ,” etc.
        • The boy who sits next to me is Bob.
          • [No appositive in the above sentence.]
    • G. … may have a pronoun + verb later in the phrase
        • Bob, my friend who lives in LA , is nice.
    • H. …will not begin with a verb form.
        • The boy calling out my name is Bob. [Not an appositive!]
  • 31. The Appositive Phrase
    • F. …will not begin with a pronoun like “ who ,” “ which ,” “ whose ,” “ that ,” etc.
        • The boy who sits next to me is Bob.
          • [No appositive in the above sentence.]
    • G. … may have a pronoun + verb later in the phrase
        • Bob, my friend who lives in LA , is nice.
    • H. …will not begin with a verb form.
        • The boy calling out my name is Bob. [Not an appositive!]
  • 32. The Appositive Phrase Find the appositives/ appositive phrases in the following sentences…
    • My best friend Mona lives down the street.
    • Jeremy, the boy next door, is moving to Hawaii.
    • The man who came to dinner is my uncle.
    • Mary Jo, the girl who likes sushi, is sitting over there.
    • My brother, who eats all day, never gains weight.
  • 33. The Appositive Phrase Find the phrases in the following sentences…
    • Excellent athletes, the WA 7th grade boys and girls basketball teams, both had winning seasons.
    • Before Monday, please type your English paper again.
    • Mrs. Barber, a seventh grade English teacher, is an avid reader.
    • Your next meeting will take place in Mr. Lee’s room.
    • We went to Woodstock last Christmas.
  • 34. The Appositive Phrase Find the appositive phrases in the following sentences…
    • Mack Sennett, the movie producer, gave us the Keystone Kops .
    • He also introduced America to an English film comic, Charlie Chaplin.
    • One of American’s best female comics, Mae West made movies with W.C. Fields.
    • Buster Keaton, another silent movie comedian, was called the Great Stoneface.
    • Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, a famous pair of fools, made many movies together.
    • Have you ever seen Richard Pryor, the comedian and movie star?
  • 35. Verbal Phrases
    • These are verb forms that no longer act like verbs .
    • Find more information on these in the next presentation.
    • GERUND PARITCIPLE IN FINI TIVE

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