Preposition and prepositional phrases


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Preposition and prepositional phrases

  1. 1. <ul><li>Presentation# 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by: </li></ul><ul><li>Tayyba Bashir </li></ul><ul><li>Anum Zulqarnain </li></ul><ul><li>Memoona Faiz </li></ul><ul><li>Fatima Sadaf </li></ul><ul><li>M.phil Linguistics,sec.B </li></ul>Minhaj University Lahore
  2. 2. Preposition & prepositional phrases
  3. 3. Preposition <ul><li>A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount.  </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>She went to the store. </li></ul><ul><li>He came by bus . </li></ul><ul><li>They will be here at three o'clock . </li></ul><ul><li>It is under the table. </li></ul>Direction Manner Time Place
  4. 4. Preposition <ul><li>The Preposition is one type of adposition. </li></ul>Adposition Preposition Postposition Circumposition
  5. 5. Preposition <ul><li>The word preposition comes from Latin, a language in which such a word is usually placed before its complement. English is another such language. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositions precede their complements. (Thus it is pre-positioned.) </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>She drove to the store. </li></ul><ul><li>p complement </li></ul>
  6. 6. Postposition <ul><li>In many head-final languages (e.g.Urdu,Bengali,Korean,Tamil,Turkish, Hindi, and Japanese), the words of grammatical function come after, not before, the complement. Such words are then commonly called postpositions. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>mise ni (&quot;to the store&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>ie kara (&quot;from the house&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Three minutes before” </li></ul>Japanese English
  7. 7. Circumposition <ul><li>Circumpositions consist of two parts that appear on both sides of the complement. </li></ul><ul><li>Circumposition occurs when a prepositional phrase contains two prepositions, one at the beginning of the phrase and one at the end. This is called a circumposition because the phrase is surrounded by prepositions. Note </li></ul><ul><li>These are uncommon in the English language because the positioning of the prepositional object becomes confused if it is not done correctly. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Adposition <ul><li>The technical term used to refer collectively to prepositions, postpositions, and circumpositions is adposition </li></ul><ul><li>Note . </li></ul><ul><li>Some linguists use the word &quot;preposition&quot; instead of &quot;adposition&quot; for all three cases. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Adpositional phrase <ul><li>An adpositional phrase is a linguistic term defining a syntactic catagory that includes prepositional phrases and postpositional phrases. Adpositional phrases contain an adposition in the head position and usually a complement such as a noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Language syntax treats adpositional phrases as units that act as complements or adjuncts. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Properties of Adposition <ul><li>They include words expressing spatial relations. </li></ul><ul><li>They also include words serving to show the semantic role and grammatical function. </li></ul><ul><li>No inflectional contrast. </li></ul><ul><li>Take an NP complement. </li></ul><ul><li>continue… </li></ul>
  11. 11. Properties of Adposition <ul><li>5.They head phrases functioning as dependents of verbs, nouns and adjectives; where the dependents of the verb can be either NPs or PPs, the NPs will tend to occupy the more nuclear functions of subject and object, the PPs nuclear one of adjunct. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Kim read the report in the morning. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Note <ul><li>In English, adpositions are prepositions: the normal order is adposition complement , not the reverse. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prepositional Phrase <ul><li>The prepositional phrase consists of the preposition, its object, and modifiers of the object. The object of the preposition is always a noun, pronoun, or a group of words used as a noun. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Example <ul><li>The coin fell (between the cracks .) </li></ul><ul><li>P Object </li></ul><ul><li>They walked (to their school ) . </li></ul><ul><li>P object </li></ul>
  15. 15. Properties of Prepositions <ul><li>Inflection </li></ul><ul><li>Complementation </li></ul><ul><li>Modification </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul>
  16. 16. Inflection <ul><li>They do not enter into inflectional contrast. Although this is a negative property, it helps differentiate prepositions from verbs, adjectives and nouns, which prototypically do inflect. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Complementation <ul><li>They can take as complements an NP or a tensed declarative clause, ”TDC”. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>[He will resign] before/towards the end of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>[He will resign] before/unless a vote is given. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Complementation <ul><li>Prepositions take NP or TDC complement </li></ul><ul><li>NP TDC </li></ul><ul><li>About, above, across, against, around, at, behind, below, beneath, beside(s), between, beyond, but, by, despite, down, during, from, inside, minus, of, off, on, opposite, out, outside, over, past, plus, round, through, throughout, to, towards, under, underneath, up, upon, via, with, within, without. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Complementation <ul><li>NP TDC </li></ul><ul><li>After, as, before, except, for, in, since, than, till, until </li></ul>
  20. 20. Complementation <ul><li>NP TDC </li></ul><ul><li>Although, because, given, if, provided, so, supposing, though, unless, whereas, while, </li></ul>
  21. 21. Complementation <ul><li>Most of the above words belong to other classes. </li></ul><ul><li>For Example </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll go provided it’s not raining. </li></ul><ul><li>She had provided the inspiration. </li></ul>Preposition Participle verb
  22. 22. Complementation <ul><li>Many words of preposition also belong to adverb class: </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>I fell down the stairs. </li></ul><ul><li>I fell down . </li></ul>Preposition Adverb
  23. 23. Example <ul><li>Casual Fridays are in . </li></ul><ul><li>Causal Friday attire is described in the company handbook. </li></ul>Adverb Preposition
  24. 24. Complementation <ul><li>Note </li></ul><ul><li>With preposition, a complement is obligatory. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Types of Complement <ul><li>Types of complements allowed by prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>The complement of an interrogative clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The complement of a present participle clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The complement A verbless clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The complement of an AdjP. </li></ul><ul><li>The complement of a PP. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Modification <ul><li>Prepositions allow only a modest amount of modification-significantly less, than is found with the open clauses. Some, such as but,although,whereas , allow none . </li></ul><ul><li>continue… </li></ul>
  27. 27. Modification <ul><li>The most widespread kind of modification is by expressions of temporal or spatial extent: </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Three hours after the start, for below the surface. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Modification <ul><li>Degree modification with very much (not very alone) tends to occur with metaphorical rather than literal meanings of prepositions. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Modification <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>[I’ m] very much against the idea </li></ul><ul><li>But hardly </li></ul><ul><li>[It was leaning] very much against the wall. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Functions <ul><li>Prepositions and prepositional phrase perform six main grammatical functions within sentences in the English language. </li></ul><ul><li>Heads of prepositional phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Modifiers of noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Complements of noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Adjuncts </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbials </li></ul><ul><li>Particles </li></ul>
  31. 31. Heads of Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>Functioning as the head of a prepositional phrases is the first grammatical function of prepositions in the English language. </li></ul><ul><li>continue… </li></ul>
  32. 32. For example <ul><li>in the library </li></ul><ul><li>after the party </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>The prepositions in and after function as the heads of the prepositional phrases. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Modifiers of Phrases <ul><li>Functioning as modifiers of other phrases is the second grammatical function of prepositions in the English language. Prepositional phrases modify noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>continue… </li></ul>
  34. 34. For example <ul><li>The puppy with white fur barked. </li></ul><ul><li>The carpet is dirty near the door. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby was crying during the movie. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>PP with white fur modifies NP the puppy . PP near the door modifies Adjp dirty. PP during the movie modifies VP was crying . </li></ul>
  35. 35. Complements of Phrases <ul><li>Functioning as complements of other phrases is the third grammatical function of prepositions in the English language. Prepositional phrases complement noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>continue… </li></ul>
  36. 36. For example <ul><li>The writer of the novel just arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>The criminal was aware of the consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Children rely on their parents. </li></ul><ul><li>continue… </li></ul>
  37. 37. Explanation <ul><li>PP of the novel functions as the complement of the noun phrase The writer . PP of the consequences functions as the complement of the adjective phrase aware. PP on their parents functions as the complement of the verb phrase rely. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Difference between modifiers and complements <ul><li>Complements differ from modifiers in that complements are required to complete the meaning of another word or phrase. Complements cannot be removed from the sentence without changing the meaning or grammaticality of the phrases. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Adjuncts <ul><li>Functioning as adjuncts in the fourth grammatical function of prepositions in the English language. Prepositional phrases functioning as adjuncts frame an entire clause. </li></ul><ul><li>continue… </li></ul>
  40. 40. For example <ul><li>In my opinion, learning grammar is fun. </li></ul><ul><li>With all due respect, you need to calm down. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>PP In my opinion and With all due respect function as adjuncts to the clauses learning grammar is fun and you need to calm down . </li></ul>
  41. 41. Note <ul><li>Adjuncts are optional and can be removed without changing the meaning or grammaticality of the main clause. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Adverbials <ul><li>Functioning as adverbials is the fifth grammatical function of prepositions in the English language. Prepositional phrases functioning as adverbials modify an entire clause by providing information such as time, place, manner, condition, reason, or purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>continue… </li></ul>
  43. 43. For example <ul><li>The family hiked in the mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>The musicians played for the president. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>PP in the mountains and for the president function as adverbials to the clauses the family hiked and the musicians played by describing place and reason. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Note <ul><li>Adverbials are also optional and can be removed without changing the meaning or grammaticality of the main clause. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Particles <ul><li>Functioning as particles in phrasal verbs is the sixth function of prepositions in the English language. Phrasal verbs are defined as periphrastic verb forms that consist of a verb followed by one or more prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>continue… </li></ul>
  46. 46. For example <ul><li>wake up </li></ul><ul><li>throw up </li></ul><ul><li>pass out </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>The prepositions up and out function as particles in the phrasal verbs wake up , throw up , and pass out . </li></ul>
  47. 47. Identification of Idiomatic Expressions <ul><li>An idiom refers to an expression that has evolved from general usage through the years but which has no established rule for this usage. </li></ul><ul><li>Many idioms involve a verb and preposition combination. </li></ul>
  48. 48. For example <ul><li>Wesley is accompanied by an interpreter on his trips to Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Jan’s leadership award was accompanied with a check for $500. </li></ul>A person An item
  49. 49. For example <ul><li>She will arrive at 6 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>They plan to arrive by train. </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmed plans to arrive in Lahore. </li></ul>Time,location Type of Transport General location
  50. 50. Note <ul><li>Avoid ending a sentence with a preposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not omit a preposition when it is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Omit prepositions that do not add clarity to the meaning of a sentence. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Thank you