Phrases and Fragments


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Phrase Fragments Clauses

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Phrases and Fragments

  1. 1. Phrases, Fragments and Clauses English 100
  2. 2. Fragment - Is a phrase or group of words that needs a subject and or a verb to make it a complete and independent idea. - It may also be a dependent clause that must be attached to an independent clause to give it meaning.
  3. 3. Fragment There are two major types of fragments: A. Phrase Fragments – consists of modified verbs without subject, prepositional, appositive, or verbal phrase. B. Clause Fragments – composed of subordinate clause which should not be capitalized and punctuated as a sentence. It should be connected with a nearby independent clause or supply the missing sentence parts.
  4. 4. A. Phrase Fragments 1. Noun Fragment – this type of fragment will need a verb and whatever other parts of a sentence that is needed to complete it. Ex. a. A single long-stemmed rose. b. The man at the bar. c. Pieces of jewelry. Complete Sentence: a. Andy selected a single long-stemmed rose. b. The man in the bar left early. c. We bought pieces of jewelry at the pawnshop.
  5. 5. A. Phrase Fragments 2. Verb Fragment – this type of fragment will need a subject to complete the sentence. Ex. a. Soon will be ready. b. Did not eat. c. Was written. Complete Sentence: a. The marching band soon will be ready. b. She did not eat the pie on the counter. c. The book was written without difficulty.
  6. 6. A. Phrase Fragments 3. Prepositional Fragment – this type of fragment will need both a subject and a verb. Ex. a. By the road side. b. In every house. c. Of all the animals. Complete Sentence: a. Wild blackberries grew by the roadside. b. There are cars in every house. c. I think the horse is the most graceful of all the animals.
  7. 7. A. Phrase Fragments 4. Participial Fragment – this type of fragment will need a subject and a verb, or a subject and one or more helping verb. Ex. a. Washed clean by the rain. b. Sleeping girl on the bench. Complete Sentence: a. The car was washed clean by the rain. b. The sleeping girl on the bench is our neighbor.
  8. 8. A. Phrase Fragments 5. Gerund Fragment – this type of fragment will need a verb, a subject and a verb, or a subject and one or more helping verb. Ex. a. Winding my watch. b. Learning how to sing. c. Dancing the waltz. Complete Sentence: a. I dislike winding my watch. b. Marvin is learning how to sing. c. Dancing the waltz makes her happy.
  9. 9. A. Phrase Fragments 6. Infinitive Fragment – this type of fragment will need a verb or a subject and a verb. Ex. a. To dance the waltz. b. To walk to school in a good weather. c. To make new friends. Complete Sentence: a. He wants to dance the waltz with her. b. Darbie likes to walk to school in a good weather. c. She went to the playground to make new friends.
  10. 10. B. Clause Fragments After Although As As if As long as As soon as As though Because Before Even though If In order that Since So that Than Though Till Unless Until When Where Whenever Wherever While - This type of fragment usually starts with relative pronouns or subordinating conjunctions. Subordinating conjunctions:
  11. 11. B. Clause Fragment Fragments: a. Which I enjoyed. b. Where the ice is thin. c. Whoever needs a ride. Complete Sentence a. I read a book, which I enjoyed. b. Do not skate where the ice is thin. c. Whoever needs a ride may come with us.
  12. 12. Identifying Fragments Directions: Read each short passage that follows. Determine which part is the fragment Ex. Maria wasn't watching her plate of barbecue very carefully. So Santana, the family beagle, snatched a chicken leg hanging over the edge. As baked beans and potato salad slid onto Maria's new sandals. Clause fragment: It may have a subject (beans and salad) and verb (slid) but the subordinate conjunction as keeps it from making a complete thought.
  13. 13. Identifying Fragments 1. Ever since Andre peeked at Melissa's paper during the biology exam. Guilt has consumed him. Even the blueberries floating in his cereal bowl seem like the accusing eyes of Dr. Gregory, his microbiology instructor. Answer: Ever since Andre peeked at Melissa's paper during the biology exam.
  14. 14. Identifying Fragments 2. James opened the door of his cluttered refrigerator. Which caused a pint of blueberries to fall to the floor. The fruit bounced and rolled everywhere in an explosion of indigo. Answer: Which caused a pint of blueberries to fall to the floor.
  15. 15. Identifying Fragments 3. Richie loves to walk his friends' dogs at Lake Eola Park. For example, Kim's Labrador retriever Murphy or Gary's bulldog Kembo. Beautiful women, Richie has learned, gravitate toward guys with cute dogs. Answer: For example, Kim's Labrador retriever Murphy or Gary's bulldog Kembo.
  16. 16. Identifying Fragments 4. Head down, Lela stared at the textbook on her desk. She understood the fragment practice that Mrs. Markham was going over in class. But was too shy to raise her hand and volunteer an answer. Answer: But was too shy to raise her hand and volunteer an answer.
  17. 17. Identifying Fragments 5. Joshua found the pressure from the gas in his stomach unbearable. Although he didn't want to be rude in the middle of geology class. An explosive belch erupted from his mouth. Answer: Although he didn't want to be rude in the middle of geology class.
  18. 18. Phrases - Is a group of words that is incomplete in thought and lacks a subject and/ or a predicate. - It gives further meaning by either naming, modifying, or explaining a word or a group of words in a sentence.
  19. 19. Kinds of Phrases A. Noun Phrases – has at least one noun that is modified by a determiner and/or another modifier/s. this may also be found before or after the verb. Ex. My diamond bracelets are in the vault. They watched a romantic movie. My diamond bracelets determiner adjective noun
  20. 20. Kinds of Phrases B. Prepositional Phrases - is a group of words made up of a preposition and a noun of pronoun, called the object of preposition. - modify other words by functioning either as adjectives or as adverbs within sentences. Two kinds: Adjective and Adverb Phrases
  21. 21. Kinds of Phrases a. Prepositional Adjective Phrase – describes the noun or pronoun in a sentence by telling its location or its association with the modified word. Adjective Adjective Phrase A beautiful painting in the hall. Micah took a boxed lunch. A painting of great beauty hung in the hall. Micah took lunch in a box.
  22. 22. Kinds of Phrases A prepositional phrase that answers the adjective questions what kind? Or which one? will be an adjective phrase. It usually modifies nouns functioning as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, or predicate nominatives. Modifying a Subject: The bag with red beads is mine. The mansion across the road has been abandoned.
  23. 23. Kinds of Phrases Modifying a Direct Object: Krissi quickly erased the poem on the board. I see the rays of sun beyond the horizon. My mother bought the one near the blue house. Modifying an Indirect Object: A realtor sold the noisy neighbors above us a new house. Modifying a Predicate Nominative: A unicorn is a gentle white creature with a single horn.
  24. 24. Kinds of Phrases b. Prepositional Adverb Phrase - Is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb by pointing out where, when, in what manner, or to what extent. Adverb Adverb Phrase She ran swiftly. They were happy there. She ran with speed. They were happy at the picnic
  25. 25. Kinds of Phrases An adverb phrase describes/ modifies either verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. Modifying a Verb: The runner dashed past the spectators. The prima ballerina danced with all grace. Modifying an Adjective: The forest was quiet before dawn. She is the most intelligent among them.
  26. 26. Kinds of Phrases Modifying an Adverb: He arrived late for class. We left early in the morning. C. Appositive Phrases - An appositive phrase is a noun or a pronoun with modifiers that renames, identifies, or explains the noun or the pronoun placed before it. - It adds more information or details to the said noun or pronoun. - Appositives generally follow immediately after words they identify, rename, or explain.
  27. 27. Kinds of Phrases Example of Appositive Phrases: Amethysts, a purple birthstone, is the gem for February. Nikko explained numismatics, the hobby of coin collecting. The sailor had scurvy, a disease cause by lack of vitamin C.
  28. 28. Kinds of Phrases Positions of appositives within a sentence: With a subject: Ernest Hemingway, a famous author, wrote in terse style. With a Direct Object: Eve wore high boots, the latest fad. With an indirect object: I bought my brother, a boy of six, a pet turtle.
  29. 29. Kinds of Phrases Positions of appositives within a sentence: With an objective complement: I choose the color purple, an unusual color for a house. With a Predicate Nominative: A porcupine’s best defense is its quills- sharp barbed spines. With an object of preposition: We store onions, potatoes, carrots, and apples in the cellar, a cool and dry room.
  30. 30. D. Verbal Phrases - A Verbal is a form of verb that functions as either a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. It may be a phrase if words are added to it. 3 categories of Verbal Phrases: a. Participial Phrases - this phrase starts with a present participle or a past participle which acts as an adjective. Ex. The girl sleeping on the bench is our neighbor. Edith’s talent, hidden all these years, was finally known.
  31. 31. Verbs or Participle?  It is easy to confuse a verb and a participle acting as an adjective since they often share the same endings –ing and –ed.  A verb shows an action, a condition, or a fact that something exists. A participle acting as an adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. Verbs Participles The dog is snarling at the plumber. The singers delighted their audience. The snarling dog attacked the plumber. Delighted, the audience applauded.
  32. 32. A participial phrase is a participle modified by an adverb or adverb phrase or accompanied by a complement. Example: Jumping high, Brad hit his head on the ceiling. The chemist, blinded by smoky fumes, stumbled. Sacanning the book, Princess spotted the answer.
  33. 33. Verbal Phrases b. Gerund Phrases- gerunds is a form of verb acting as a noun by adding – ing. Gerund phrase is a gerund with modifiers or complement, all acting together as a noun. Example: Eating on time will prevent ulcer. The thing I taught Fely this year was driving automatic cars.
  34. 34. Verbal Phrases c. Infinitive Phrases – these functions in a sentence as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs to adding to before the verb. Example of infinitives: - To understand requires maturity and acceptance. - Working hard at her new job, Brenda hoped to succeed. - The hunter’s only defense against the bear was to run. - They struggle to resist.
  35. 35. An infinitive phrase is an infinitive with modifiers, complements, or a subject, all acting together as single part of speech. Example: Gina’s entire family likes to rise early. To skate on the ice without falling was not easy for him. He hated to discuss emotions. They promised to show us their slides. I would like her to determine her own goals.
  36. 36. Some infinitives omit ‘to’ when the infinitives follows one of the verbs listed below: Dare Hear Help Let Make Please See Watch Example: They heard the canary sing its song. Let’s be on our way.
  37. 37. Clauses
  38. 38. Clauses A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb. There are two main kinds of clauses: 1. Independent or Main Clause - A clause is independent when it has a complete meaning on its own. In other words, an independent or main clause is a simple sentence. Ex. Siony eats her food slowly. I could not see because he was in front of me.
  39. 39. Clauses 2. Dependent or Subordinate Clause - A clause is independent when it is incomplete by itself and needs to be attached to an independent or main clause to make sense. - It starts with a subordinating conjunction. Ex. I could not see because he was in front of me. Although it was not obvious, Ronnie was truly nervous when he gave the presentation.
  40. 40. Clauses There are three different kinds of dependent or subordinate clause: 1. Noun Clause 2. Adjective Clause 3. Adverb Clause
  41. 41. Noun Clause - A noun clause is a subordinate clause that acts as a noun. It may act as a subject, direct objects, indirect object, predicate nominative, object of preposition, or appositive. - this clause begins with the relative pronoun: that, which, whichever, whom, whomever, who, whoever, whose, whosoever, the fore Ws, how, if, and whether.
  42. 42. Noun Clause a. Subject Whether he agrees or not does not matter. Whoever is last must pay a penalty. b. Direct Object I don’t understand whatever it is on your mind. Pease invite whomever you want. c. Indirect Object Rochelle gave whoever sent her flowers a note. Hi manner gave whoever met him a shock.
  43. 43. Noun Clause d. Predicate Nominative The question is why you left early. Our problem is whether we should stay here or leave. e. Object of the Preposition Give the promotion to whoever deserves it. Use the money for whatever purpose you choose. f. Appositive He gave his demand, that he be left alone. The occupied country rejected our plea, that orphans be cared for by the Red Cross.
  44. 44. Adjective Clause - An adjective clause generally describes a noun and a pronoun. - This may start with a relative pronoun: that, which, whom, who, or whose and comes after the word it describes. Sometimes it may begin with relative adverb such as before, since, when, where, or why. - it describes the subject, direct object, object of preposition, predicate nominative, gerund, and infinitive.
  45. 45. Adjective Clause a. Subject The movie which we watched is so funny. Anyone who remains calm will probably be good in an emergency. b. Direct Object I found the book that my friend gave me. I finished watching the film that you loaned me. c. Object of the Preposition She gave the letter to her friend who is leaving next week. Our trip to Ilocos Sur ended with a visit to the town where my parents were born.
  46. 46. Adjective Clause d. Predicate Nominative That is my nephew whom I took to the movie house last Friday. Spring is the time when peepers make their shrill evening sound. e. Gerund I found the book that my friend gave me. I finished watching the film that you loaned me. f. Infinitive To work without taking a break is stressful.
  47. 47. Adverb Clause - The adverb clause describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. This clause starts with a subordinate conjunction. - It may describe the verb, adjective, adverb, participle, and infinitive in a sentence.
  48. 48. Adverb Clause VERB I turned on the lights when I heard a loud noise. ADJECTIVE Gabby is still sleepy although she slept for ten hours. PARTICIPLE Kiko, working since he was just 16, opened his own business. INFINITIVE Fixing the plumbing was so difficult to do that I called the plumber immediately.