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Cold War U.S. History 1945-Present
 

Cold War U.S. History 1945-Present

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    Cold War U.S. History 1945-Present Cold War U.S. History 1945-Present Presentation Transcript

    • Origins to 1960 The Cold War:
    • Background:
      • After WW II, the US and USSR emerged as rival superpowers.
      • Each nation was strong enough to greatly influence world events.
    • What is the Cold War?
      • Era of confrontation between the U.S. and Soviet Union
      • CIA- operated in developing countries to overthrow anti-American leaders
    • Causes of the Cold War
      • United States
      • Free-enterprise, capitalism, republic
      • Secretly developed atomic bomb
      • Made efforts to resist Soviet expansion
      • Soviet Union
      • Communism, totalitarian dictatorship
      • Wanted U.S. and British to open a second front earlier in the war
      • Refused to live up to wartime promises of elections in Eastern Europe.
    • Terms surrounding the Cold War
      • Fallout- deadly radiation left over after a nuclear blast
      • Brinkmanship- threatening nuclear strikes to back down opponents
      • Satellite nations- Communist countries of Eastern Europe
      • Warsaw Pact– military alliance in Eastern Europe
    • United Nations
    • United Nations
      • 1 st adopted by those nations allied in opposition against Germany, Italy, & Japan during WWII.
      • 26 nation-states signed the Declaration of United Nations on January 4, 1942.
      • Charter of the UN consists of a preamble & articles similar to the U.S. Constitution.
      • Charter outlines the purposes, structure, & powers of the UN.
    • The Four Purposes
      • 1. To preserve world peace.
      • 2. To encourage nations to be just in their actions toward each other.
      • 3. To help nations cooperate in solving their problems.
      • 4. To serve as an agency through which nations can work toward these three goals.
    • The Seven Principles
      • 1. All members have equal rights.
      • 2. Each member is expected to carry out its duties under the charter.
      • 3. Each member agrees to the principle of settling disputes peacefully.
      • 4. Each member agrees not to use force or the threat of force against other nations except in self-defense.
      • 5. Each member agrees to help the UN in every action it takes to carry out the purposes of the charter.
      • 6. The UN agrees to act on the principle that nonmember states have the same duties as member states to preserve world peace & security.
      • 7. The UN accepts the principle of not interfering in the internal affairs/domestic problems of member nation, so long as these actions do not harm other nations.
    • The Organization of the U.N.
      • 1. General Assembly
      • 2. The Security Council
      • 3. The Economic & Social Council
      • 4. The Trusteeship Council
      • 5. The International Court of Justice
      • 6. The Secretariat
    • General Assembly
      • All members are represented.
      • Each has one vote, but may send as many as five representatives.
      • Important decisions are decided by a majority vote or by a super-majority vote (2/3), depending on importance.
      • Deliberative Organ —Deliberates on, or discusses & decides, important issues.
      • UN permanent headquarters—New York City
      • Regular assembly meetings last for three months, beginning on the third Tuesday in September.
      • Selects secretary-general.
      • Current: Kofi Annan (Ghana)
      • Selects the 15 judges of the International Court of Justice.
      • May admit, suspend, or expel members.
    • Security Council
      • Responsibility for maintaining international peace.
      • Originally, the council consisted of eleven members: five of these were permanent members (France, United Kingdom, Russia, U.S., & China.)
      • Six were nonpermanent members elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms.
      • Amended to enlarge the council by adding four more nonpermanent members.
      • Five nonpermanent must come from African & Asian countries, one from Eastern European countries, two from Latin American countries, & two from Western Europe & other countries.
      • Members of the UN agree to carry out the decisions of the Security Council.
      • Any one of the five permanent members can veto a Security Council decision.
      • May call for military action by asking UN members to contribute military personnel to a UN peacekeeping force.
      • Korean UN peacekeeping mission.
      • Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, & others.
      • Other important UN Bodies
      • The World Health Organization (WHO)---Combats
      • health problems in underdeveloped countries.
      • The International Bank for Reconstruction &
      • Development (World Bank)---Makes loans for
      • projects in developing countries.
    • The Presidency of Harry Truman
      • Took over the presidency due to the death of FDR in April 1945
      • Truman’s main problem as president was getting the U.S. converted from war-time to peace-time economy
      • The job market would decrease due to the (military) arms factories being shut down
    • The Presidency of Harry Truman
      • Put price controls on certain goods and try to keep inflation down
      • Was not a well-liked president
      • During his presidency, the Democratic Party found themselves divided
    • Three major industrial strikes
      • All took place in 1946
      • Coal miners
        • Truman seized mines and brought in the military to run them
      • Railroads
      • Steel mills
        • Were given an ultimatum to stay on the job or the military will be brought in to run them
    • Taft-Hartley Law
      • Was passed in 1947 over a veto by Truman
      • The law stated that a “cooling off” period should take place before a strike could take place
      • The law prohibited jurisdictional strikes, boycotts, and the union had to submit financial statements
      • Truman called the bill a form of slave labor
    • 1948 Election
      • Truman faced Thomas Dewey a Republican and Strom Thurmond who ran as a 3 rd party candidate
      • Truman went to bed after reading the headlines that Dewey had defeated him
      • The next morning, Truman was declared the winner
    •  
    • Truman Doctrine
      • Was created to give aid to people in Eastern Europe and the Middle-East who wanted to get rid of Communism
    • Marshall Plan
      • Was created to give people of Western Europe aid to rebuild their economies and keep communism out
    • The Fair Deal
      • Truman wanted to…
        • Extend social security
        • Extend aid to public and private schools
        • Extend Medicare to the elderly
      • All were rejected in some form
    • Potsdam Conference July 1945
      • Final wartime conference
      • Big Three
        • England = Attlee
        • USA = Truman
        • USSR = Stalin
      • Stalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe
    • Satellite Nations…
      • Stalin never allowed truly free elections.
      • Instead, communist governments were installed in many Eastern European nations.
      • Main Purpose?
        • Protect USSR from invasion from the West
    • Containment Policy
      • George Kennan, career Foreign Service Officer
      • Formulated the policy of “containment”:
        • US would not get rid of communism, but would not allow it to spread.
        • US would “contain” communism where is already existed.
    • The Iron Curtain
      • Winston Churchill coined this term.
      • Famous speech on March 5, 1946 at Westminster College, in Fulton, Missouri.
      • CLICK for text and video of speech
    •  
    • Churchill’s Warning…
      • Churchill felt that behind the Iron Curtain, the USSR was planning to attack and conquer Western Europe.
    • Division of Germany
      • The Allies decided to divide Germany into 4 zones after the war.
      • Also, the capital of Berlin was divided into 4 sectors.
        • SEE next 2 slides
    •  
    •  
    • Problem with Berlin?
      • Berlin was in the Soviet Sector.
      • Stalin was not happy with a “small piece” of democracy in Eastern Europe.
        • What did he do?
    • Berlin Blockade
      • June 1948, Stalin attempts to starve West Berliners into submission.
      • All rail and street access was blocked.
    • Berlin Airlift
      • American and British planes flew food and supplies into Berlin for 327 days.
      • Stalin lifted the Blockade by May 1949.
    • Berlin Airlift 1949
      • U.S. flew thousands of missions to keep Berlin, Germany from falling into the hands of Communist Soviet Union
      • U.S., Britain, and France merged their zones in Berlin which left just a small part belonging to the Soviet Union
    •  
    • Operation “Little Vittles”
      • During the Berlin Airlift a group of pilots decided to help boost the spirits of the German children.
      • They organized a mission to drop candy to the children using parachutes made of handkerchiefs.
    • N orth A tlantic T reaty O rganization
      • NATO was established by a treaty in 1949
      • This organization established a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
      • Original members were:
        • United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
        • Greece (1952), West Germany (1955) join also
    • The Korean War
      • North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950
      • Truman called on General Douglas MacArthur to lead United Nations forces into repelling the North Koreans
      • North Korea was communist and was backed by the Soviet Union and China
      • The United Nations and South Korea were struggling and losing the war
    • The Korean War
      • Mac Arthur invaded Inchon, South Korea on September 15, 1950
        • Was considered very risky, but brilliant.
      • U.S. and U.N. forces pushed the North Koreans back to the 38 th parallel the original border of the countries
      • China stated that if the U.S. crossed the 38 th parallel, they would intervene and become involved.
    • The Korean War
      • Truman and Mac Arthur met at Wake Island to discuss China and discussed they would not engage the Chinese
      • November 1950- Mac Arthur’s troops crossed the Yalu River and were surrounded by 300,000 Chinese
      • His army was trapped at the Chosin Reservoir where thousands died due to a miscalculation in Mac Arthur’s retreat
    • General Douglas Mac Arthur
      • Previous to his involvement in Korea, he was in charge of occupied Japan after WWII
      • Was relieved of his command, forced to retire, and reduced from a five-star general to a three-star general
      • He was given a hero’s welcome and was given the honor of addressing Congress
      • Mac Arthur was replaced by General Matthew Ridgeway
    • The Korean War
      • Became a stalemate for three years
      • 50,000 killed in action
      • 100,000 wounded
      • 4,000 + missing in action
      • An armistice was signed on June 26, 1953 bringing peace that continues to this day
      • The border remains to be the 38 th parallel
    • The Korean War
      • A DMZ (demilitarized zone) would be established
      • As our troops came home, the Americans learned of a technique called brainwashing
      • The Manchurian Candidate (a movie) was created shedding light on the effects of brainwashing
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Korean Landscape
    • Executive Order 8802
      • Truman passed an executive order which banned discrimination in the military as well as federal jobs.
    • The Warsaw Pact
      • Communist Response to NATO.
        • Signed on May 1, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland
      • Military treaty, which bound its signatories to come to the aid of the others, should any one of them be the victim of foreign aggression.
      • Original Members:
        • Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany , Poland, Rumania, the USSR, and the Czechoslovak Republic.
    •  
    • Cold War in Asia
    • Struggle for China
      • Mao Zedong wanted China to become a communist state after WW II .
      • Chang Kai Shek fought to stop the communists but was unsuccessful.
    • Communist China 1949
    • T aiwan
      • Chiang Kai-shek, retreated from Mainland China and moved his government from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan's largest city.
      • Taiwan made a claim they were separate from China.
      • Still a problem area today.
    • Cold War in America (1945-1960)
      • Was there reason to be concerned? YES !
        • Soviet domination of Eastern Europe
        • China turned Communist – 1 billion people!
        • 80,000 Americans members of Communist party
    • Loyalty Review Board
      • Set up by President Truman in March 1947.
      • Purpose?
        • Investigate Federal government employees and dismiss those disloyal to US
      • 212 dismissed
    • House on Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
      • 1947 = House of Representatives
      • Investigate Communist influence in the movie industry
    • ‘ Hollywood Ten’
      • 10 Hollywood screenwriters and directors who refused to testify before HUAC.
      • Charged with contempt of Congress.
      • Claimed 1 st Amendment right of free speech
    • Blacklisted
      • Following a meeting of film industry executives at New York's Waldorf-Astoria hotel, MPAA president Johnston issued a press release on the executives' behalf that is today referred to as the Waldorf Statement.
      • The statement declared that the ten would be fired or suspended without pay and not reemployed until they were cleared of contempt charges and had sworn that they were not Communists .
      • The first Hollywood blacklist was now in effect.
    • Spy Cases Shock the US
      • During the late 1940s and early 1950s, America was rocked by sensational stories of Americans spying for the Soviet Union.
    • Alger Hiss
      • Hiss worked for the US State Department.
      • Accused of being a spy for the USSR.
      • Found guilty of perjury.
      • Later (1990s) Hiss was proven to be a spy for the USSR.
    • The Rosenbergs
      • American Communists who were found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American nuclear bomb to the Soviet Union.
      • The couple were executed at sundown in the electric chair at Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York, on June 19, 1953.
    • McCarthyism
      • Senator Joe McCarthy became the most famous anti-Communist activist.
      • Used the issue to help win re-election in 1950.
    • McCarthy’s Tactics
      • Made one unsupported accusation after another.
      • He would bully witnesses.
      • McCarthyism = tactics used to advance your career.
    • McCarthy’s Downfall
      • In 1954 McCarthy made accusations against the US Army.
      • Led to televised Senate investigation; and American people did not like McCarthy’s tactics. His popularity dropped greatly.
    • McCarthyism
      • Senator Joseph McCarthy from Wisconsin believed the U.S. was being infiltrated by Communism.
      • He attacked various people (verbally)
        • Weak people (writers, movie stars)
        • People that he felt were not trustworthy
      • He made accusations without foundation and ruined people socially and financially
      • He didn’t have proof most of the time
    • McCarthyism
      • He went to far when he stated he had a list of people who were Communist and worked for the Army and State Department
      • Richard Nixon assisted McCarthy in his “digging up” of the half-truths
      • McCarthy lost in Senate seat in 1956 after ruining the lives of many people
    • Election of 1952
      • The Republican’s nominated former general Dwight D. Eisenhower and he chose Richard Nixon as Vice President
      • The Democrats chose Adali Stevenson from Illinois to run against Eisenhower
      • Eisenhower won on a promise to end the Korean War and bring the soldiers home
      • Eisenhower went to Korea to visit the soldiers before taking office
    • Change in Leaders
      • The early 1950s saw a change in leaders in both the US and USSR.
      • USA = Dwight Eisenhower wins the election of 1952.
      • USSR = Nikita Khruschev takes over when Stalin dies in 1953.
    • Hydrogen Bomb
      • US exploded the 1st H-bomb on November 1, 1952 in South Pacific .
        • That bomb completely destroyed one island and left a crater 175 feet deep .
      • Russians exploded on in August of 1953 .
    •  
    • Brinkmanship
      • Defined as willingness to push nation to the “brink” of nuclear war to keep peace.
      • Policy advocated by John Foster Dulles; Secretary of State.
    • Central Intelligence Agency - CIA
      • Used spies to gather information abroad
      • Began to carry out covert operations to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the United States.
    • Iran
      • One of the CIAs first covert actions tool place in Iran when Iran’s Prime minister Mohammed Mossadegh nationalized Iran’s oil fields.
      • CIA worked to remove Mossadegh
    • Shah of Iran
      • CIA “Operation Ajax” caused the downfall of Mossadegh from office.
      • The Shah, backed by the US, formed a government friendly to the US.
    • Suez War -1956
      • Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal and would not allow ships headed for Israel to pass through – all nations were supposed to have access.
      • French, English, Israeli force attacked Egypt.
      • After discussion, canal was opened .
    • Hungarian Uprising 1956
      • The Hungarian people, tired of Soviet domination in their country, rose in revolt and called for a democratic government.
      • The Soviet response was swift and brutal:
    • USSR Crushes Rebellion
      • Soviet tanks rolled into Hungary and killed 30,000 Hungarians and executed the resistance leader – Imre Nagy.
      • US and UN did nothing to help.
    • Space Race
      • On October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I.
      • The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball.
      • Orbited the earth in 98 minutes .
      Race to control space was on!
    • U-2 Incident
      • U-2 was designed to be high altitude reconnaissance plane.
      • CIA used these to spy on USSR and one was shot down on May 1, 1960.
    • Francis Gary Powers
      • Recruited by CIA to fly spy missions.
      • Shot down in U2 over USSR and convicted of espionage.
      • Exchanged for a KGB colonel the US had captured.
    • Eisenhower’s Presidency
      • Failures
        • Not giving aid to Hungary in 1956 when they tried to throw out the Communists
        • The launching of Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union
        • The Chinese shelling of Formosa
        • U2 Spy plane crisis of 1960 involving CIA agent Francis Gary Powers
    • Eisenhower’s Presidency
      • Eisenhower stated that the nation “must be prepared to use atomic weapons in all forms (threat to the Soviet Union)
    • Conclusion…
      • Moving into the 1960’s, the Cold War was really starting to heat up with no end in sight.
      • The Cold War will continue in the 1960s with the world moving closer to an open conflict between the US and USSR.