The cold war(by e.s ngwenya)

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The cold war(by e.s ngwenya)

  1. 1. CTHE COLD WARWHAT REALLY HAPPENED? TEACHER: Esther Ngwenya GRADE: 12
  2. 2. What is happening in this cartoon?
  3. 3. THE COLD WAR • The Cold War was a ‘war’ involving the USA and the USSR in which no direct fighting actually occurred between the two countries, but tensions were very high. • The USA and the USSR in 1945 were two very different countries with very different belief: • The USA was CAPITALISM The USSR was COMMUNISM
  4. 4. How are these beliefs different? Capitalism = Where all factors of production (industry, business and agriculture) are owned by private individuals or firms who run them for their own profit. Communism = Where all factors of production (industry, business and agriculture) are owned by the state for the good of everyone
  5. 5. Leadership Capitalist • One leader, voted for by the people • Works with Parliament to pass laws • Could be from a variety of political parties Communist •Ideally no need for a leader - Run by a committee – so no voting •Oversees day to day business •Only one political party
  6. 6. • World War Two Why did the relationship between the USSR and the USA change during the war?
  7. 7. Long term causes of the Cold War During the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) the Allies fought against the Bolsheviks. The USSR remembered that bitterly. During the Second World War, the USSR, France, United Kingdom and USA had fought against the Axis (1939-1945) together. The USSR however, had suffered the most and was the country that had been supported the least. Stalin wanted, therefore, high reparations and more security against a future threat.
  8. 8. Long term causes of the Cold War After the Second World War, two superpowers emerged (USA and USSR). When the Nazi troops began retreating, liberation movements (who fought against Nazism) took over those countries. Nearly all the Eastern Bloc countries repaid Stalin for liberation by following the road to communism. The USA supported non-communists while the USSR, the communists. This created tension between the east and west.
  9. 9. Yalta conference This conference was held in February 1945 (Churchill) (Roosevelt) (Stalin)
  10. 10. Yalta conference The allies got on well in this conference. They agreed that Germany would be divided into four zones & divided between the victorious countries. Berlin would be divided in a similar manner. Eastern Europe would be seen as a Soviet sphere of influence. Free elections would be held in the liberated countries. They disagreed about the borders of Poland
  11. 11. Yalta Agreements • USSR will help USA defeat Japan. • Stalin will lead a communist government in Poland but with other political parties involved also. • Declaration of Liberated Europe • The creation of the United Nations • The USSR should have a “sphere of influence” on Eastern Europe. • France should be included in governing postwar Germany. • Germany should assume some responsibility of the 2nd World War.
  12. 12. YALTA PROBLEMS
  13. 13. YALTA PROBLEMS • Stalin will lead a communist government in Poland but with other political parties involved also. The London Poles (who were pro democratic) were given powerless roles within the government and had very little influence on policy.
  14. 14. Potsdam conference This conference started on 17 July 1945 (Atlee) (Truman) (Stalin
  15. 15. Potsdam conference Stalin wanted to cripple Germany but USA and UK wanted to avoid the mistakes of WW1. Their aim was to help Germany to once again become a strong nation with economic stability. President Truman kept secret about the atomic bomb before it was first used in 1945 against Japan. He did however mention to Stalin that he had at his disposal an undisclosed “Powerful new weapon”
  16. 16. Potsdam conference Concludes 2 August 1945 All the countries agreed about the Oder-Neisse border of Poland. Both Truman and Atlee wanted an anti-communist government to rule Poland.
  17. 17. USSR policies on Eastern Europe Stalin wanted to protect himself against any future threats. Therefore he made sure his neighbours were loyal. Tito, the leader of Yugoslavia, remained independent from the Cominform, an Eastern alliance. Europe was now divided : East and West. To the British and the Americans, Stalin seemed to be trying to build an empire.
  18. 18. Truman •The Truman Doctrine •The policy of Truman was to contain the spread of communism around the world. His aim, to support “free” countries by military means or with economic support. The USA would not return to isolationism. •Examples: Turkey, Greece.
  19. 19. Greek communists • GREECE • After the war, the royalists wanted the return of the monarch. However, the communists, supported by Stalin, attacked the king and Britain was forced to intervene. • The USA provided Greece with arms, money and supplies. The Communists were defeated after a civil war in 1949.
  20. 20. Marshall Aid After the war, Truman wanted to make Europe prosperous again. He believed that poverty provided an opportunity for the spread of communism. He needed American businesses to trade with European businesses. Therefore he sent money and supplies wherever he believed that capitalism could prevail over communism. Stalin banned the Eastern Bloc countries from accepting the Marshall Plan.
  21. 21. Czechoslovakia 1948 Czechoslovakia was not totally part of the Eastern bloc and it accepted the Marshall Plan. In 1948 elections were due. Communists organized riots. In May 1948 only the Communists were the candidates, as the opposition was gradually driven out. Non- Communist ministers resigned or were murdered.
  22. 22. German After the war, Germany was divided into four zones controlled by the USA, Britain, France and USSR. The Western countries wanted to merge the zone to reunite German territory and to facilitate economic recovery. Berlin was deep in the Soviet zone. It was also divided in four sectors.
  23. 23. PICTURE OF BERLIN BLOCKADE •Berlin blockade •The formation of West Germany, the new currency and the Marshall Plan were reasons why in 1948, Stalin decided to blockade Western Berlin. He closed off the road and railway connections into Berlin.
  24. 24. Berlin blockade The Allies decided to airlift supplies in for the Berliners. Fortunately, the aeroplanes were not shot down and the blockade was eventually lifted in May 1949. The Soviet zone of Germany later became the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). The Federal Republic was also formed to be known as West Germa
  25. 25. Consequences of Berlin Blockade
  26. 26. What was the founding of NATO? • An agreement amongst the Western allies that an attack against one of them was an attack against all of them. • If such an attack occurs, each of them will assist by taking whatever action is deemed necessary, including the use of armed force. • It was dominated by the USA and is considered a milestone in American foreign policy. • The alliance was supported with large numbers of troops on the ground. • It was a determined attempt to stop the spread of communism.
  27. 27. What was the founding of the Warsaw Pact? A treaty of mutual defense and military aid
  28. 28. What happened to ruin relations? • What happened? • How did this raise tensions between the USSR and the USA? • Who was at fault – the USA, the USSR or both? • • 1. what really happened? • 2. how did this raise tension between USA and USSR? • 3. Who’s fault was it, the USA or USSR, or both?
  29. 29. • Fill in your table as you go. • Make sure you learn the facts - You will need to be able to explain what happened to the rest of the class in 5 minutes time!
  30. 30. Debate! – Who caused the Cold War • It is 1946 and you are one of the following: • One of Stalin’s advisors who thinks the USA is to blame. • One of Truman’s advisors who thinks the USSR is to blame. • A member of the government from a neutral country who thinks both countries are partly to blame. • You are about to enter another conference in which you will debate who caused the cold war to begin. • Use the information you just collected to form an argument for your side – be ready to tackle counter-arguments
  31. 31. - For every different argument you make your team will be awarded a point. - For every piece of evidence you use your team will be awarded a point. - If any member of your team shouts out while the other team is speaking you will lose a point
  32. 32. Challenge Question! Consider the following question before your next lesson: • Was the Cold War inevitable?

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