United Nations


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United Nations

  1. 1. United Nations
  2. 2. United Nations <ul><li>1 st adopted by those nations allied in opposition against Germany, Italy, & Japan during WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>26 nation-states signed the Declaration of United Nations on January 4, 1942. </li></ul><ul><li>Charter of the UN consists of a preamble & articles similar to the U.S. Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Charter outlines the purposes, structure, & powers of the UN. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Four Purposes <ul><li>1. To preserve world peace. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To encourage nations to be just in their actions toward each other. </li></ul><ul><li>3. To help nations cooperate in solving their problems. </li></ul><ul><li>4. To serve as an agency through which nations can work toward these three goals. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Seven Principles <ul><li>1. All members have equal rights. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Each member is expected to carry out its duties under the charter. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Each member agrees to the principle of settling disputes peacefully. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Each member agrees not to use force or the threat of force against other nations except in self-defense. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>5. Each member agrees to help the UN in every action it takes to carry out the purposes of the charter. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The UN agrees to act on the principle that nonmember states have the same duties as member states to preserve world peace & security. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The UN accepts the principle of not interfering in the internal affairs/domestic problems of member nation, so long as these actions do not harm other nations. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Organization of the U.N. <ul><li>1. General Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Security Council </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Economic & Social Council </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Trusteeship Council </li></ul><ul><li>5. The International Court of Justice </li></ul><ul><li>6. The Secretariat </li></ul>
  7. 7. General Assembly <ul><li>All members are represented. </li></ul><ul><li>Each has one vote, but may send as many as five representatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Important decisions are decided by a majority vote or by a super-majority vote (2/3), depending on importance. </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberative Organ —Deliberates on, or discusses & decides, important issues. </li></ul><ul><li>UN permanent headquarters—New York City </li></ul><ul><li>Regular assembly meetings last for three months, beginning on the third Tuesday in September. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Selects secretary-general. </li></ul><ul><li>Current: Kofi Annan (Ghana) </li></ul><ul><li>Selects the 15 judges of the International Court of Justice. </li></ul><ul><li>May admit, suspend, or expel members. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Security Council <ul><li>Responsibility for maintaining international peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, the council consisted of eleven members: five of these were permanent members (France, United Kingdom, Russia, U.S., & China.) </li></ul><ul><li>Six were nonpermanent members elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Amended to enlarge the council by adding four more nonpermanent members. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Five nonpermanent must come from African & Asian countries, one from Eastern European countries, two from Latin American countries, & two from Western Europe & other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the UN agree to carry out the decisions of the Security Council. </li></ul><ul><li>Any one of the five permanent members can veto a Security Council decision. </li></ul><ul><li>May call for military action by asking UN members to contribute military personnel to a UN peacekeeping force. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Korean UN peacekeeping mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, & others. </li></ul><ul><li>Other important UN Bodies </li></ul><ul><li>The World Health Organization (WHO)---Combats </li></ul><ul><li>health problems in underdeveloped countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The International Bank for Reconstruction & </li></ul><ul><li>Development (World Bank)---Makes loans for </li></ul><ul><li>projects in developing countries. </li></ul>