Psychology Chapter 1


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Introduction to Psychology

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Psychology Chapter 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology
  2. 2. Section 1 Why Study Psychology?
  3. 3. Psychologists Point of View <ul><li>They study complex behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological- having to do with an organism’s physical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive- having to do with an organism’s thinking and understanding </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Psychology? <ul><li>Is the scientific study of behavior that is tested through scientific research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the study can involve both animal and human behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some believe our thoughts, feelings, and fantasies are important, but not always observable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the study of behavior must be systematic </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Use of Systematic Method <ul><li>Usually asks and answers questions about why people think, act, and feel as they do reduces the chances of coming to false conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Blind man and elephant story </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Goals of Psychology <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul>
  7. 7. Description <ul><li>Describe or gather information about the behavior being studied and present what is known </li></ul>
  8. 8. Explanation <ul><li>Are not content with the facts </li></ul><ul><li>They seek to explain why people or animals behave </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis- an assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research </li></ul><ul><li>Theory- a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prediction <ul><li>Use knowledge and predict what organisms think and feel in various situations </li></ul><ul><li>By studying past behaviors, psychologists can predict future behaviors </li></ul>
  10. 10. Influence <ul><li>Psychologists seek to influence behavior in helpful ways </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Science- the pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Science- discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals </li></ul>
  11. 11. Scientific Method <ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul>
  12. 12. Wilhelm Wundt <ul><li>Set up the first psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of element: sensations and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Believes an individual observes, analyzes, and reports his or her mental experiences </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 2 A Brief History of Psychology
  14. 14. Marmaduke Sampson <ul><li>Studied “why crime occurs” </li></ul><ul><li>Believed behavior was the result of the shape of the head </li></ul><ul><li>Phrenology- the practice of examining bumps on a person’s skull to determine that person’s intellect and character traits </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired scientists to consider the brain instead of the heart as responsible for human behavior </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Origins of Psychology <ul><li>5 th and 6 th Centuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks studied human behavior and decided people were rational and not dominated by gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks set the stage for the development of sciences </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Origins of Psychology <ul><li>1500 and 1600s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copernicus- published idea that the earth was not the center of the universe, the sun was. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galileo Galilei- used a telescope to confirm the predictions of Copernicus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descartes- proposed a link between the body and mind </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Historical Approaches <ul><li>Structuralism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt- is acknowledged for establishing modern psychology as a separate field of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structuralist- a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introspection- a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Functionalism <ul><li>William James- taught the first class in Psychology at Harvard University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote the first textbook “The Principles of Psychology” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functionalist- a psychologist who studied the function instead of the structure of consciousness </li></ul>
  19. 19. Inheritable Traits <ul><li>Sir Francis Galton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to understand how heredity influences a person’s abilities, character, and behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His study focused on genius being a hereditary trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not consider that distinguished families may also have exceptional environments and socioeconomic advantages </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Inheritable Traits <ul><li>Scientists recognized flaws in Galton’s research </li></ul><ul><li>They came up with the theory that “a person’s heredity and environment interact to influence intelligence” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Gestalt Psychology <ul><li>German Psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Max Wertheimer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wolfgang Kohler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kurt Koffka </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disagreed with the principles of structuralism and behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Believed perception was more than a sum of its parts </li></ul><ul><li>Studied how sensations are assembled into perceptual experiences </li></ul>
  22. 22. Contemporary Approaches <ul><li>Psychoanalytic </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural </li></ul>
  23. 23. Psychoanalytic Psychology <ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested in the unconscious mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used the technique of free association, which is still used today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that dreams are expressions of the most primitive unconscious urges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His view on the unconscious is a powerful influence and controversy </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Psychoanalytic Psychology <ul><li>Psychoanalyst- a psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior, feelings, and thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Case study- is an analysis of the thoughts, feelings, beliefs, experiences, behaviors, or problems of an individual </li></ul>
  25. 25. Behavioral Psychology <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov- Russian Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Salivating dog experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavlov rang a tuning fork each time he gave a dog some meat powder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dog would normally salivate when the power reached his mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He repeated the experiment, the dog would salivate when it heard the ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dog was conditioned to associate sound with food </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Behavioral Psychology <ul><li>Behaviorist- a psychologist who analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>John Watson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed psychology should only concern itself with the observable facts of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced the concept of reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a response to a behavior that increases the likelihood for the behavior to be repeated </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Humanistic Psychology <ul><li>Humanist- a psychologist who believes that each person has freedom in directing his or her future and achieving personal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Rollo May are humanistic psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed human nature as evolving and self-directed </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Noam Chomsky </li></ul><ul><li>Leon Festinger </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitivist- a psychologist who studies how we process, store, retrieve, and use information and how thought processes influence our behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that behavior is more than a simple response to a stimulus </li></ul>
  29. 29. Biological Psychology <ul><li>Known today as behavioral neuroscience </li></ul><ul><li>Psychobiologist- a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have found that genetic factors influence our behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered a link between chemicals in the brain and human behavior </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Sociocultural Psychology <ul><li>Sociocultural psychologists study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on behavior and social functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The impact and integration of millions of immigrants entering the U.S. every year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes, values, beliefts, and social norms and roles of the various racial and ethnic groups </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Section 3 Psychology as a Profession
  32. 32. What is a Psychologist? <ul><li>Psychologists- is a scientist who studies the mind and behavior of humans and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatry- is a branch of medicine that deals with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders </li></ul><ul><li>These two professions are usually confused </li></ul>
  33. 33. Subfields of Psychology <ul><li>Clinical psychologist- is a psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling psychologist- is a psychologist who usually helps people deal with problems of everyday life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School psychologist </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Subfields of Psychology <ul><li>Developmental psychologist- a psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures </li></ul><ul><li>Educational psychologist- a psychologist who is concerned with helping students learn </li></ul>
  35. 35. Subfields of Psychology <ul><li>Community psychologist- a psychologist who may work in a mental health or social welfare agency </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial or organizational psychologist- a psychologist who uses psychological concepts to make the workplace a more satisfying environment for employees and managers </li></ul>
  36. 36. Subfields of Psychology <ul><li>Environmental psychologists- work in a business or with the government to study the effects of the environment on people </li></ul><ul><li>Psychobiologists- study the effect of drugs or try to explain behavior in terms of biological factors </li></ul>
  37. 37. Subfields of Psychology <ul><li>Forensic psychologists- work in legal, court, and correctional systems </li></ul><ul><li>Health psychologists- study the interaction between physical and psychological health factors </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental psychologists- is a psychologist who studies sensation, perception, learning, motivation, and/or emotion in carefully controlled laboratory conditions </li></ul>
  38. 38. Source: <ul><li>Kasschau, Richard, A. Understanding Psychology . McGraw-Hill, Glencoe, New York, New York, 2008. </li></ul>