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Origins Of The Cold War


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Origins Of The Cold War

  1. 1. Origins of the Cold War <ul><li>Essential Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What was U.S.-Soviet relations like after World War II? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Iron Curtain? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Truman Doctrine? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Marshall Plan? </li></ul><ul><li>How is Berlin an example of the Cold War on a smaller scale? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Berlin Airlift? </li></ul><ul><li>What was NATO? </li></ul>
  2. 2. U.S.-Soviet Relations <ul><li>After World War II the U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers </li></ul><ul><li>Relations were tense throughout the war between the two nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin was angry the U.S. and England did not open a second front to draw Hitler away from the Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin was furious when he learned the Manhattan Project had been kept a secret </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both had different views of the future: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Soviets endorsed communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted the state to control all property and economic activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Americans endorsed capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted private citizens to control almost all economic activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. United Nations <ul><li>After World War II ended hopes for peace were high </li></ul><ul><li>April 1945 representatives of 50 nations met in San Francisco to establish a new peacekeeping body </li></ul><ul><li>It was intended to keep peace and prevent another World War </li></ul><ul><li>It would soon become a body where nations (U.S. and Soviet Union) competed for power </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stalin Extends His Power <ul><li>Stalin refused free elections in Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Truman demanded free elections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to spread democracy to the nations once controlled by Nazi Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to expand economic free enterprises across the globe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. industries boomed during the war and he wanted this to continue </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets tightened grip on Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin installed Communist governments in many nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as satellite nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Countries dominated by Soviet Union </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Iron Curtain <ul><li>American officials decided it was time to stop “babying the Soviets” </li></ul><ul><li>Policy of containment was adopted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Churchill called this division of power between Communism and Democracy an “Iron Curtain” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Truman Doctrine <ul><li>Conflicts between U.S. and Soviet Union led to the Cold War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Would dominate global affairs from 1945 to 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Truman enacted a new policy known as the “Truman Doctrine” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said the U.S. would support those who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress agreed and believed it was necessary to stop the expansion of Communism </li></ul>
  7. 7. Marshall Plan <ul><li>Post-war Europe was chaos </li></ul><ul><li>Factories and industries had been destroyed and entire cities obliterated </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of State George Marshall proposed the United States provide aid to all European nations that needed it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the Marshall Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over the next four years 16 countries received $13 billion dollars in aid </li></ul><ul><li>By 1952 Europe was flourishing and Communism had lost much of its appeal </li></ul>
  8. 8. Germany <ul><li>At end of WWII Germany had been divided into four zones occupied by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States, Great Britain, France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1948 theses three nations decided to merge their three zones into one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stalin in ‘retaliation’ for this act of unification blockaded all roads and highways into western Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>They were surrounded by Soviet territory </li></ul><ul><li>As a result no food or fuel could reach that part of the city </li></ul>
  9. 9. Berlin Airlift <ul><li>American and British officials started the Berlin airlift </li></ul><ul><li>Flew food and supplies into western Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>For 327 days planes took off and landed every few minutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>227,000 flights were flown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It saved western Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, in 1949 Stalin realized he had been beaten and the blockade was lifted </li></ul>
  10. 10. NATO <ul><li>Berlin blockade had increased western Europe’s fear of Communist aggression </li></ul><ul><li>10 western European powers (including the U.S. and Canada) created NATO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Atlantic Treaty Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pledged military support to each other in case any member was attacked </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. had entered into a peacetime alliance with other nations </li></ul><ul><li>Hopes of returning to a pre-1941 isolationism was gone </li></ul>