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Central and South Africa


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Central and South Africa

  1. 1. Central Africa Mr. Rinkel
  2. 2. Democratic Republic of the Congo <ul><li>Capital: Kinshasa </li></ul><ul><li>¼ the size of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The Congo River stretches 2,733 miles throughout the country </li></ul><ul><li>Savanna and park forest vegetation predominate the north and south of the forest belt </li></ul>
  3. 3. Democratic Republic of the Congo <ul><li>Highest altitudes found along the Great African Rift Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. Ruwenzori reaches 16,795 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some mountains are volcanic </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rainforests <ul><li>Cover 1/3 of Democratic Republic of the Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Canopy: umbrella-like forest covering made up of tree tops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very thick (sunlight rarely reaches the jungle floor) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home to monkeys, birds, snakes, and other small animals </li></ul><ul><li>Over 750 species of trees grow in the R.F. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Highlands and Savannas <ul><li>Mountains rise on the eastern border </li></ul><ul><li>Vast open grasslands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to giraffes, lions, leopards, zebras, and rhinos </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rivers and Lakes <ul><li>Congo River (2800 miles long) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs through Central Africa to the Atlantic Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the country’s highway for trade and travel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lake Tanganyika </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The world’s longest freshwater lake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The world’s 2 nd deepest lake </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Climate <ul><li>The country is located near the equator (tropical climate) </li></ul><ul><li>80” of rain annually </li></ul><ul><li>Savannah and highlands are cooler and drier </li></ul>
  8. 8. Economy <ul><li>Has the potential to become wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Mining is the major economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Congo leads the rest of Africa in diamond mining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farming especially subsistence farming is very important to this area </li></ul>
  9. 9. Energy Sources <ul><li>Rivers provide the main source for energy </li></ul><ul><li>13% of the world’s hydroelectricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity created by moving water </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The People <ul><li>Population of 49 million </li></ul><ul><li>Home to many different ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African with European influences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% are Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% live in rural villages </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Katanga (Shaba) <ul><li>Attempted to secede from Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Very mineral rich part of the country </li></ul><ul><li>U.N. troops were called in and clashed with Katangan Army </li></ul><ul><li>1963- fighting ended and Katanga remained a part of the Congo </li></ul>
  12. 12. Congo problems <ul><li>1990s- very disintegrated </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage flowed in open ditches in the capital </li></ul><ul><li>Highways were full of potholes </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals lacked needed medicines </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 2 Other Countries of Central Africa
  14. 14. Central African Republic <ul><li>Capital: Bangui </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 4,303,356 </li></ul><ul><li>Landlocked and in completely tropical climate </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the land is a plateau varying from 2,000 to 2,500 ft. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Central African Republic <ul><li>Land is well drained by the Ugangi and the Shari and Longone river systems </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: diamonds, uranium, timber </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues: poaching, non-potable water, desertification </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cameroon <ul><li>Capital: Yaounde </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 17,340,702 </li></ul><ul><li>Four geographic regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern region (coastal plains and forested plateau) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central region (transitional region in which the forest gives way to the savanna </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Cameroon <ul><li>Four geographic regions continued… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern region (vast savanna that slopes down to the Chad River basin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West (dominated by forested mountains with peaks reaching 8,000 ft.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mount Cameroon- is an active volcano </li></ul><ul><li>Benue River is navigable during several months of the year </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cameroon <ul><li>Natural Resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: waterborne diseases, overgrazing, overfishing </li></ul>
  19. 19. Gabon <ul><li>Capital: Libreville </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 1,424,906 </li></ul><ul><li>Highest peak: Mt. Iboundiki (5,165 ft) </li></ul><ul><li>Ogowe River is navigable for 150 miles </li></ul>
  20. 20. Gabon <ul><li>Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, diamonds </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: deforestation and poaching </li></ul>
  21. 21. Equatorial Guinea <ul><li>Capital: Malabo </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 540,109 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: petroleum, timber, gold </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues: water not potable, deforestation </li></ul>
  22. 22. Equatorial Guinea <ul><li>Mainland consists of coastal plains rising to interior thickly forested hills </li></ul><ul><li>Bioko- island formed from three extinct volcanoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malabo the capital is located on this island </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Sao Tome and Principe <ul><li>Capital: Sao Tome </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 193,413 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: Fish, hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues: soil erosion/exhaustion, deforestation </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sao Tome and Principe <ul><li>Formed by a chain of extinct volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Situated in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the equator </li></ul>
  25. 25. Chapter 21 South Africa and It’s Neighbors
  26. 26. South Africa <ul><li>Capital: Pretoria </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 44,187,637 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: gold, chromium, coal </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: lack of rivers and lakes, air pollution, desertification </li></ul>
  27. 27. South Africa <ul><li>Spreads across the southern end of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Three times the size of California </li></ul><ul><li>Landscapes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winding coastlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High plateaus </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. South Africa <ul><li>Enclaves - small countries surrounded or nearly surrounded by a larger country. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesotho </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swaziland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West coast borders the Atlantic Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South and east coast borders the Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. South Africa <ul><li>Cape of Good Hope- the southernmost point of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Great Karroo- a dry flat land between the mountain ranges of southern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>High Veld- south African plateau made up of flat, grass-covered plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated rocky hills rise as high as 100 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Great Escarpment- mountains and cliffs that circle the plateau and divide the coastal areas </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Climate <ul><li>Lies south of the Equator </li></ul><ul><li>Winter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool and sunny, some rainfall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures sometimes drop to freezing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild due to high elevation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cape Town- a major port city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern warm winds from the Indian Ocean bring a humid subtropical climate </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Economy <ul><li>Has the most developed economy in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>½ of Africa’s minerals are mined in S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>2/5 of Africa’s manufactured goods come from South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>In rural areas, South Africans are poor and depend on subsistence farming </li></ul>
  32. 32. Economy <ul><li>South Africa is one of the richest countries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of all gold is mined there </li></ul><ul><li>Witwatersrand- an area around the city of Johannesburg holds the largest goldfield </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa also contains the world’s largest deposits of diamonds </li></ul>
  33. 33. Economy <ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial workers produce manufactured goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports metal products, chemicals, clothing, and processed foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is either too dry or too hilly to farm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow enough food for themselves and some to export </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herding sheep and livestock is a major economic activity on the plateau </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. People <ul><li>74% of the population is made up of various African ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>14% of the people are of European origin </li></ul><ul><li>3% of the people are of Asian origin </li></ul><ul><li>9% are a mixed of European, Asian, and African </li></ul>
  35. 35. People <ul><li>Apartheid - “apartness” or practices that separated South Africans of different ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Townships- neighborhoods outside cities </li></ul><ul><li>57% of people live in urban areas </li></ul>
  36. 36. Recent history in South Africa <ul><li>1994- Mandela became president (all races were able to vote for the 1 st time) </li></ul><ul><li>1997- new constitution went into effect to complete the transition from white minority rule to democracy </li></ul>
  37. 37. Mandela’s Government <ul><li>Tried to improve the lives of blacks while keeping support of other races </li></ul><ul><li>Promised to preserve free enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Brought South Africa’s economy to the strongest in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Stepped down in 1999, ANC leader Thabo Mbeki became president </li></ul>
  38. 38. South Africa’s continued problems <ul><li>1/3 of South African’s were unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>¼ lived in inadequate housing </li></ul><ul><li>1/5 have HIV (highest incidence in the world) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Section 2 Atlantic Countries
  40. 40. Angola <ul><li>Capital: Luanda </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 12,127,071 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: overuse of pastures, soil erosion; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest </li></ul>
  41. 41. Angola <ul><li>Larger than Texas and California combined </li></ul><ul><li>Includes a tiny exclave called Cabinda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclave- is a tiny area of a country that is separated from the main part </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Angola <ul><li>Huge inland plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers cross Angola draining into the Congo River in the North and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Hilly grasslands cover northern Angola </li></ul><ul><li>Lowland has little vegetation except for rainforests in the North </li></ul>
  43. 43. Angola <ul><li>Three types of Climates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steppe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical savanna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The tropical savanna receives enough rainfall for farming </li></ul>
  44. 44. The Economy <ul><li>Major economic activity is agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>58% of the people live in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee is the leading export crop </li></ul><ul><li>Oil and mining provide for most of the income </li></ul><ul><li>Most oil deposits are found off the coast of Cabinda </li></ul>
  45. 45. Namibia <ul><li>Capital: Windhoek </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 2,044,147 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: very limited natural fresh water resources; desertification; wildlife poaching </li></ul>
  46. 46. Namibia <ul><li>Became independent in 1990 after 75 years of South African rule </li></ul><ul><li>Is about half the size of Alaska </li></ul><ul><li>Namib Desert runs almost the entire length of Namibia’s Atlantic Coast </li></ul><ul><li>The Kalahari Desert stretches across the southernmost part of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Very hot and dry climate </li></ul>
  47. 47. The Economy <ul><li>Depends on the export of minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Has a major difficulty in feeding its people, due to the desert climate </li></ul><ul><li>Most Namibians are herders who raise cattle, goats, and sheep </li></ul>
  48. 48. Namibia <ul><li>Receives just enough rainfall to grow corn </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most sparsely populated countries in Africa </li></ul>
  49. 49. Section 3 Inland Southern Africa
  50. 50. Zambia <ul><li>Capital: Lusaka </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 11,502,010 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: copper, cobalt, zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain </li></ul>
  51. 51. Zambia <ul><li>Landlocked and near the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Mild climate due to high elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by a high plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Kariba Dam- one of Africa’s hydroelectric projects on the Zambezi River </li></ul>
  52. 52. Economy <ul><li>One of the world’s largest producers of copper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of Zambia’s income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper belt- a large area of copper mines in northern Zambia near the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must import food due to a focus on mining </li></ul>
  53. 53. The People <ul><li>More than 70 different ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Speak 8 different languages </li></ul><ul><li>40% of the people live in urban areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most work in mining or service industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The other 60% live in villages & raise corn and other subsistence food crops </li></ul>
  54. 54. Malawi <ul><li>Capital: Lilongue </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 13,013,926 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: limestone, arable land, hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: deforestation; land degradation </li></ul>
  55. 55. Malawi <ul><li>In some place is less than 50 miles wide </li></ul><ul><li>Great Rift Valley runs through the country North to South </li></ul><ul><li>Lies in the tropics, but mountains and plateaus give it a mild climate </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most densely populated countries in Africa </li></ul>
  56. 56. Economy <ul><li>Only 1/3 is suitable for farming </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture is the country’s major economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tea is a major export </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sorghum- tall grass with seeds like corn </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Zimbabwe <ul><li>Capital: Harare </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 12,236,805 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution </li></ul>
  58. 58. Zimbabwe <ul><li>Occupies a high plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical savanna climate of wet and dry seasons </li></ul><ul><li>High elevations keep temperatures cool and pleasant </li></ul>
  59. 59. Economy <ul><li>Mining provides most of the income </li></ul><ul><li>½ of the land is fertile for farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They grow coffee and tobacco on commercial farms for export </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. People <ul><li>Most belong to two African ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shona & Ndeble </li></ul></ul><ul><li>70% live in rural villages </li></ul><ul><li>Some moving to the city to find factory jobs </li></ul>
  61. 61. Botswana <ul><li>Capital: Gaborone </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 1,639,833 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: diamonds, copper, nickel </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues: overgrazing; desertification </li></ul>
  62. 62. Botswana <ul><li>Most isolated country in the inland of Southern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Southwestern Botswana is home to the Kalahari Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern- made up of grasses, bushes, and trees of the savanna </li></ul><ul><li>Okawango River flows through the Northwest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the largest swamp areas in the world </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. The Economy <ul><li>Rich in mineral resources </li></ul><ul><li>Mining only provides a small number of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Most farm or raise livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Drought in the 1980s brought hardships to the farmers </li></ul>
  64. 64. The People <ul><li>Has very few people due to large size </li></ul><ul><li>75% live in rural areas, some moving to the city every year </li></ul>
  65. 65. Section 4 Indian Ocean Countries
  66. 66. Mozambique <ul><li>Capital: Maputo </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 19,686,505 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: civil war and recurrent drought </li></ul>
  67. 67. Mozambique <ul><li>Landscapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand lowlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High plateaus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand dunes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swamps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat plain near the center of the country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gabora Bassa Dam on the Zambezi River provides electric power to most of the country </li></ul>
  68. 68. The Economy <ul><li>Mostly farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Practices slash and burn agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They cut and burn forest trees to clear areas for planting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major source of income comes from seaports </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war in the 1980s and 1990s slowed industrial growth </li></ul>
  69. 69. Madagascar <ul><li>Capital: Antananarivo </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 18,595,469 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: graphite, chromite, coal </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing </li></ul>
  70. 70. Madagascar <ul><li>Island nation in the Indian Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Highland areas cross the middle of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal areas have warm, humid plains, and fertile river valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Dry grasslands cover southern Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>Has many plants and animals that are not found anywhere else on earth </li></ul>
  71. 71. Economy <ul><li>Agriculture is the chief economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coffee is the leading export </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces most of the world’s vanilla beans </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Comoros <ul><li>4 mountainous islands formed from volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by thick tropical forests </li></ul><ul><li>Farming is a major economic activity </li></ul>
  73. 73. Mauritius <ul><li>Capital: Port Louis </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 1,240,827 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: arable land, fish </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: water pollution, degradation of coral reefs </li></ul>