3 Frank Zappa on librariesFrom the liner notes to his first album, Freak Out! (1966) HUNGRY FREAKS, DADDY was written for Carl Orestes Franzoni. He is freaky down to his toe nails. Some day he will live next door to you and your lawn will die. Drop out of school before your mind rots from exposure to our mediocre educational system. Forget about the Senior Prom and go to the library and educate yourself if you’ve got any guts. Some of you like Pep rallies and plastic robots who tell you what to read. Forget I mentioned it. This song has no message. Rise for the flag salute. [Emphasis added] • Comments on the song ―Hungry Freaks, Daddy‖ reproduced on website Information is Not Knowledge
4 History of School LibrariesNot very well known! Although the American public school library is one of this nation’s most ubiquitous educational institutions, we know very little about its history. • First sentence of:
6 Roles of the school library in historyLaurel Ann Clyde (born in Australia, became library educator in Reykjavik, Iceland): 1. the school library established to support the teaching and learning activities of the school 2. school library established to provide recreational reading 3. the library established to serve both the L. Anne Clyde school and the community 1946-2005 4. school library established as a scholars’ library to serve the needs of a particular group within the school 5. the school library established as a memorial • Based on Clyde, Laurel A. (1981) The magic casements: a survey of school library history from the eighth to the twentieth century. PhD thesis, James Cook University as summarized in Laurel A. Clyde -- Thesis
7 Clyde’s conclusion 1Purpose of school libraries hasn’t changed much http://murraylib600.org/ScholeLybrarie.htm
8The library as center of the school? http://stephanieharvey.com/home http://heartoftheschool.edublogs.org/
10 Support teaching and learning?Appears in several mission statements:
11 A supporting role only?What about enhancing?
12 The Instructional Role of the Media SpecialistHas it changed much? It is evident from an analysis of two data sources that an evolution in the instructional role of the library media specialist did occur from 1950 to 1984. A clear pattern of progressive development of the instructional role has persisted in the standards and the literature. The changes in the library media specialist’s role from study hall monitor to curriculum designer can certainly be termed substantive. • Craver, K. (1986, Summer). The Changing Instructional Role of the High School Library Media Specialist, 1950–84: A Survey of Professional Literature, Standards, and Research Studies. School Library Media Quarterly, 14, 4: 183-91. Also available in print in The emerging school library media program. Libraries Unlimited, 1988
13 1945 BenchmarkFirst set of national standards for school libraries K-12 School Libraries for Today and Tomorrow published by the American Library Association These standards linked the quality of school libraries to the size of book collections and the frequency of classroom teacher use of the library. Further, the school librarian was beginning to be seen as an instructional leader for the ―mental, emotional and social growth of young people.‖ • Underwood, L. J. (2003). A case study of four school library media specialists’ leadership in Louisiana ,‖ EDD dissertation, W. VA University, p. 23. Available online from WVU.
14Tracing the evolutionThe Fifties The decade between the close of World War II and the mid-fifties was termed by many educators as a decade of American complacency. Americans had emerged victorious from a world war and were exulting in their acknowledged super-power status. School librarians floundered in a wave of anti-intellectualism and the conformity that was precipitated by technological democracy and the Cold War. Teaching, despite the noticeable increase in audiovisual services offered by school libraries, was still dominated by the textbook. • The Changing Instructional Role of the High School Media Specialist
15The advent of the space age 1957 The launching of Sputnik in 1957 was the catalyst that halted America’s complacency and expedited the educational process. At this point, federal funds were made available for the purchase of the school library as a resource center, and not merely a depository. By the late 1950s, schools began to focus on learning rather than teaching, and on curriculum methods that permitted a broader instructional role for the school librarian. • The Changing Instructional Role of the High School Media Specialist
16 A new benchmarkStandards for School Library Programs (American Association for School Librarians, 1960) Published in collaboration with the Department of Audiovisual Instruction (DAVI) of National Education Association • School Libraries, Gale Education Encyclopedia Specified the collaborative leadership responsibilities of the school librarian with teachers regarding curriculum development and textbook selection. • Underwood, ―A Case Study of Four School Library Media Specialists’ Leadership in Louisiana‖
17 The decade of fermentThe Sixties In school library development and education in general, the 1960s can be described as a decade of ferment. ―rhetoric and ideas abounded as to what education would do to solve a number of pressing social issues—from integrating the schools racially to promoting a love of reading among the disadvantaged or disinterested.‖ The school’s new emphasis on ―diversified learning materials—both printed and nonprinted—for all subjects and levels of ability‖ finally brought to school librarians the opportunity for [a] greater instructional role. • The Changing Instructional Role of the High School Media Specialist
18 A major projectKnapp School Libraries Project (1963-1974) The Knapp Foundation supported curricular innovations that included collaborative teaching with the school librarian. For the first time, the role of the school librarian changed from a keeper of materials to an active participant in the academic process. Thus, the Knapp Foundation recognized the importance of the school librarian as an active participant in schools that embraced the new reforms. • Underwood, ―A Case Study of Four School Library Media Specialists’ Leadership in Louisiana‖
19 New standards and new titleStandards for School Media Programs (ALA, 1969) ALA and the DAVI of NEA publishes Standards for School Media Programs, national guidelines that unify the roles of librarians and audiovisual personnel under the terminology of library media program and library media specialist. • School Libraries, Education Encyclopedia School library media specialists were now responsible for non-print materials such as tape recorders, records, filmstrips, and film loops, which required expertise in technology. • Underwood, Case Study
20A time of actionThe Seventies This period witnessed an actual, rather than merely a proposed, change from passive learning on the part of students to an environment in which students and teachers actively participated together in projects and activities that served to convey information previously provided by a textbook or a teacher. Within this environment of change, the school library finally receives assurance that its educational goals and objectives, which in many cases were ahead of the times, were now appropriate. • The Changing Instructional Role of the High School Media Specialist
21 New standards againMedia Programs: District and School (AASL and Association for Educational Communications and Technology (DAVI of NEA became AECT in 1971)) The 1975 standards . . . gave more attention to systematic planning providing guiding principles for both site-level and district-level decision- making. By this point, the school library specialist was seen as an integral part of the total instructional program. • Program Standards School Library Media Specialist Preparation (AASL and NCATE, 2003), p. 5.
22A mercurial environmentThe Eighties While the instructional role of the school library media specialist from 1980 to 1984 could be characterized as a period of adjustment concerning the implementation of instructional design activities, the introduction of computers presented library media specialists with a new set of problems. There is evidence that more systematic approaches were being followed for instruction and that library media specialists were being urged to consider their educational role within the framework of the total program. • The Changing Instructional Role of the High School Media Specialist
23 Response to A Nation at Risk (1983)Alliance for Excellence: Librarians Respond to a Nation at Risk (1984) Four basic concepts presented: • Learning begins before schooling. • Good schools require good school libraries. • People in a learning society need libraries throughout their lives. • Public support of libraries is an investment in people and communities. – Shirley Fitzgibbons, School and Public Library Relationships: Essential Ingredients in Implementing Educational Reforms and Improving Student Learning School Library Media Research Volume 3 (2000)
24 The Information Power EraA major policy document The major development in 1988 in terms of standards was the publication of the new school library media guidelines, INFORMATION POWER (AASL & AECT, 1988). This document presents an active, forward-looking role for library media programs based on the library media specialist functioning as information specialist, teacher, and instructional consultant. Discussions of the guidelines are just beginning to appear in the literature; however, the document has already been presented to educators at all levels. • Trends in Library and Information Science: 1989. ERIC Digest
25 Another major projectLibrary Power (1988-98)Inspired by the vision of Information Power (1988)Library Power programs established in 700 schools in 19 communities nationwide―Faithful adoption of Library Powers core practices, along with widespread acceptance of these practices, can lead to permanent change; similarly, as similar policies are implemented elsewhere institutionalization of these practices is more likely.‖ • ―What Works‖: Research You Can Use: The National Library Power Project Teacher Librarian, 27 (2) (1999, Nov-Dec). • See also Library Power Executive Summary: Findings from the National Evaluation of the National Library Power Program
26 Information Power 2nd ed., 1998Affirmed that ―Student Achievement IS the Bottom Line‖
29 Incorporating the standardsStandards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action This publication from AASL takes an in-depth look at the strands of the Standards for the 21st-Century Learner and the indicators within those strands. It also answers such critical questions as How do the strands—the skills, dispositions in action, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies—relate to one another? Benchmarks are provided along with examples that show how to put the learning standards into action. This is a practical book with examples of how to maximize the application of the learning standards at different grade levels.
30 New Guidelines 2008Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Programs Empowering Learners advances school library programs to meet the needs of the changing school library environment and is guided by the Standards for the 21st-Century Learner and Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action. It builds on a strong history of guidelines published to ensure that school library program planners go beyond the basics to provide goals, priorities, criteria, and general principles for establishing effective library programs.
32 A leadership role?Essential for 21st century learning
33 Leadership in AASL guidelinesEmpowering learners: Chapter IV Empowering learning through leadership: • Guideline: The school library media program is built by professionals who model leadership and best practices for the school community
34 Leadership for pre-service librariansALA/AASL Standards for Initial Preparation of School Librarians (2010)
40 More on Learning CommonsOrigins The foundational ideas for the transformation of a school library and computer lab into a learning commons was first set forth in Loertscher, Koechlin, and Zwaan’s book: The New Learning Commons: Where Learners Win (2008). Foundational article: The Time is Now: Transform Your School Library into a Learning Commons by Carol Koechlin, Sandi Zwaan, and David V. Loertscher • From Learning Commons Treasury, ed. by David Loertscher and Elizabeth ―Betty‖ Marcoux See also Learning Commons with Loertscher and Koechlin