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User education and information literacy - Innovative strategies and practices


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presented at PAARL Forum held at the World Trade Center on the occasion of the Manila International Book Fair, 29 Aug 2007, Manila, Philippines

Published in: Business, Education

User education and information literacy - Innovative strategies and practices

  1. 1. User Education and Information Literacy : Current Practices and Innovative Strategies Fe Angela M. Verzosa by
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Developments in computers, microelectronics, and communication technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Gone are the days of stand-alone libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional libraries were dominated by print publications and access to these resources were done manually </li></ul><ul><li>The paradigm shift now is from stand-alone libraries to library and information networks, available via the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Automated, digital, and virtual libraries as well as networked data, specialized networks, and library networks are now in place </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia and the Internet have further made the job of library and information professionals more challenging </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>growing recognition of the importance of life-long and individualized learning </li></ul><ul><li>a new enthusiasm for research library instruction and bibliographic control and automation has emerged </li></ul><ul><li>bibliographic instruction, also called library use instruction, or user education, has grown over the years from a simple area of interest to a complex area of study </li></ul><ul><li>instruction librarians have begun to examine the complexities of search strategies, the differing information needs of novices and experts, and the organization of knowledge in various fields in order to better serve their patrons </li></ul><ul><li>all these contribute to the emergence of an important role for the librarian, that of the teacher </li></ul>
  4. 4. Library’s mission <ul><li>To teach users how to become more effective, efficient, and independent in their information search </li></ul><ul><li>To develop user education programs responsive to their needs </li></ul><ul><li>To expand these programs to include information literacy and lifelong learning </li></ul>
  5. 5. Library user education <ul><li>Is library user education an important activity? </li></ul><ul><li>What programs and problems can be traced through its history? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the content, teaching methods, evaluation studies , and problems of current programs? </li></ul><ul><li>What has been the impact of these programs? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the future hold for library user education ? </li></ul><ul><li>How are the factors of change affecting libraries and library user education? </li></ul><ul><li>How can librarians respond to these changes ? </li></ul>
  6. 6. User education defined … <ul><li>user education simply means educating the library patron, whether student, staff, or member of the public, on how to use the library and its services. </li></ul><ul><li>should include any effort or program which will guide and instruct existing and potential users in the recognition and formulation of their information needs, in the effective and efficient use of information services and their assessment . </li></ul>
  7. 7. History of user education <ul><li>1700s evidence indicates German universities gave library instruction in the form of lectures </li></ul><ul><li>1820s </li></ul><ul><li>early rise and rapid decline of library instruction also in the form of lectures </li></ul><ul><li>1900s basic skills at freshmen level </li></ul><ul><li>1940-1970s focused on access skills and biblio- graphic tools; problem solving was introduced </li></ul>
  8. 8. History of user education <ul><li>1980s integration of library instruction into the library profession and higher education; expansion of user education to information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>1990s </li></ul><ul><li>development of online catalogs and databases, and increased use of Internet drastically changed instruction sessions </li></ul><ul><li>2000s use of multimedia aids, online tutorials, modular teaching methods, and heightened focus on information literacy </li></ul>
  9. 9. Current Status <ul><li>What is being taught and which teaching methods and systems have been implemented in programs? </li></ul><ul><li>What do evaluation studies show about the effectiveness of library user education? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some problems common to these programs? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Current Methods <ul><li>Lecture method </li></ul><ul><li>Seminar, tutorials, and demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Guided tour </li></ul><ul><li>Audiovisual method </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-aided programmed instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Individual instruction at the Reference desk </li></ul><ul><li>Course-related instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based instruction </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sample instruction module What a search engine is and how it operates are the focus of this presentation. Comparisons of various search engines, advanced searching, and results pages are also discussed. A brief discussion of Web site evaluation can also be incorporated. ~20 mins. Internet Typically, the database most suited to the assignment is demonstrated. Keyword versus subject searching, full text options and availability, and some of the more advanced search options form the basis for discussion. ~25 mins . Articles Discussion of the library's catalog revolves around a simple search for books and other items owned by the library followed by a brief discussion of availability, call numbers, and item locations. ~15 mins . Books Various computing issues affecting research typically encountered by students such as print quota, saving/retrieving files are incorporated into every session. ~10 mins . Computer Basics DESCRIPTION LENGTH FOCUS
  12. 12. Levels of user education <ul><li>at the beginning of every academic year or semester ... applicable to all those who are using the library for the first time, e.g. Library orientation and library tour </li></ul><ul><li>subject oriented instruction for undergraduates at a stage when they are admitted to a special branch or subject of their choice or at the time of project work. </li></ul><ul><li>Literature search training ... provided at the beginning of their research work. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other Levels of User Education <ul><li>Undergraduate Level a general introduction to the geography of the university library, as well as some useful information about the library catalog, reference sources, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Post-graduate Level In addition to the above information, instruction on classification system, biblio- graphies available, library services offered, etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other Levels of User Education <ul><li>Research Scholar Level detailed info about literature search, compilation of bibliographies for their projects, technical writing, giving footnotes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty Level to conduct fruitful research and enable faculty to teach, they need to know the steps in literature search, information retrieval, technical writings, interlibrary loans, relevant library services, etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Evaluation of library instruction <ul><li>Formative evaluation to measure the effectiveness of instruction for guidance on how to improve the program </li></ul><ul><li>Summative evaluation to measure the effect of library instruction on the students and their performance </li></ul><ul><li>Most evaluation studies done since the 1970s fall into one of three methods: opinion surveys, knowledge testing , and library use observation. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Common Problems <ul><li>lack of student motivation or faculty cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>generic instruction session trivializes information gathering </li></ul><ul><li>course-related instruction is simply oral bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>audiovisual does not hold users' interest </li></ul><ul><li>computer-assisted instruction is very time intensive to produce </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction is not integrated into the curriculum </li></ul>
  17. 17. Course-related instruction <ul><li>viewed as one of the most effective user education methods . </li></ul><ul><li>requires faculty cooperation and the faculty member's authority to decide when instruction is given and who receives it </li></ul><ul><li>librarians have limited control over course-related instruction </li></ul><ul><li>very staff-intensive and the high ratio of students to librarians is a big problem </li></ul><ul><li>librarians need to continue to look for additional ways of reaching students thru work- shops and handouts, and library assignment consultations </li></ul>
  18. 18. Information literacy <ul><li>now the avowed objective of most library user education program </li></ul><ul><li>is an expansion of instruction as to objectives, materials, and methods </li></ul><ul><li>has evolved in the way that instruction evolved from library orientation into bibliographic instruction </li></ul><ul><li>encompasses the entire world of information seeking to prepare people to pursue the concept of lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>extends its objectives to teaching information-seeking skills to all ages and at all times </li></ul><ul><li>prepares people to use information effectively in any situation </li></ul>
  19. 19. Information literacy defined… <ul><li>Information literacy may be defined as the ability to access and evaluate information effectively for problem solving and decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Information literate people know how to be lifelong learners in an information society . </li></ul><ul><li>They recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the information needed </li></ul><ul><li>Information literate people are those who have learned how to learn . They know how to learn because they know how information is organized, how to find it, how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them. </li></ul>
  20. 20. An information literate person … <ul><li>recognizes the need for information </li></ul><ul><li>recognizes that accurate and complete information is the basis for intelligent decision- making </li></ul><ul><li>identifies potential sources of information </li></ul><ul><li>develops successful search strategies </li></ul><ul><li>accesses sources of information , including computer-based and other technologies </li></ul><ul><li>evaluates, organizes, and integrates information for practical application </li></ul><ul><li>uses information in critical thinking and problem solving </li></ul>
  21. 21. Innovative strategies <ul><li>librarians should become proactive in teaching information skills; they also must learn to teach </li></ul><ul><li>an expanded library user education program will include teaching the structure of information, use of new electronic formats, and applying critical thinking to information </li></ul><ul><li>librarians will have to maximize the use of technology to teach more skills to greater numbers of users </li></ul><ul><li>more complex expert systems will be developed to help users with in-depth use of complex abstracting and indexing services </li></ul><ul><li>emphasis will be on problem-solving and on obtaining and accessing information rather than on ownership </li></ul><ul><li>user instruction will need to provide students and faculty with basic, intermediate, and advanced guidance in the use of the library </li></ul>
  22. 22. Innovative strategies <ul><li>As to methods, instruction should employ short modules that allow self-directed study with more emphasis on instructional content and less on the media used, e.g. online modules and online tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>The system should be one that users are comfortable in using and gives them a sense of control over it. </li></ul><ul><li>Users should receive guidance on which resources are best for their needs , and basic instruction on search technique , and should feel assured that the system is not difficult and is evolving toward a more efficient, effective, and easy-to-use system. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Innovative strategies <ul><li>Staff responsible for the future management of the user education program, will need to liaise closely with all academic areas, groups and individual users to ensure that it meets the increasingly diverse needs of users. </li></ul><ul><li>The program must reflect the varied levels of skills of those users. </li></ul><ul><li>Library user education should become an integral part, formal if possible, of the curriculum of the University. </li></ul><ul><li>It must be monitored and evaluated to ensure it is relevant to users’ needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Those responsible for user education will be expected to appraise and implement national and international developments, if they are appropriate to local needs. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>At the end of the 20th century, college and university libraries face enormous challenges and opportunities . As campuses move into the information age, the mission and role of the library is being redefined . While the amount of information libraries need to acquire continues to increase, the resources available to do so are insufficient . </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conclusion <ul><li>The growing universe of  print-based publications and digital documents on the one hand, and the declining universe of library budgets on the other, can be handled confidently by adopting certain strategies, such as by developing critical thinking skills , as well as promoting information literacy at large. In the near future, users should expect timely access to quality information. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Conclusion <ul><li>Incorporating end-user education in academic libraries by developing training programs for the library and information professionals, as well as the end-users, will hopefully improve learning attitudes and network-related competence to use with information and communication technologies. </li></ul>