Academic & School Libraries


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Academic & School Libraries

  1. 1. Academic & School Libraries
  2. 2. Academic: History <ul><li>Early University Libraries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard in 1636 owned 5,000 volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yale in in 1750 had 2,000 volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiscal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library’s roles </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>19 th Century: support teaching & research </li></ul><ul><li>Why the change? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library’s role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical education vs. practical application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Methods emphasized research & independent study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Professionalism <ul><li>Systematic & professional library education </li></ul><ul><li>ALA founded in 1876 </li></ul><ul><li>These led to trained professionals who took over the maintenance of the collection from the faculty. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Staffing <ul><li>College Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Director/Dean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Librarians: Subject Specialists, Catalogers, Public Service Desks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paraprofessionals: student workers, library assistants, clerks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the best case scenarios, the Library Director reports directly to the President of the university. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Staffing <ul><li>Librarians are considered faculty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenure: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>publish or perish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Masters or PhD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involved professionally </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Funding <ul><li>University determines budget </li></ul><ul><li>Fundraising may or may not exist. </li></ul><ul><li>% devoted to materials is higher than public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facility management is done by the university and not the library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden costs (utilities, maintenance) are not in the budget </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Policies <ul><li>Every Library has policies (formal or informal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written and adopted by the board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posted or easily available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection Development, Privacy, Internet Use, Circulation, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Trends & Issues <ul><li>Preservation & Digitization </li></ul><ul><li>Online Collections & Remote access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wifi Campus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bibliographic Instruction (Computer Literacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Barnes & Noble atmosphere </li></ul>
  10. 14. School Libraries: History <ul><li>1835: New York State permitted tax dollars to be used for school libraries </li></ul><ul><li>1852: 1 st compulsory school attendance law is passed </li></ul><ul><li>1875: 20 more states had passed laws similar to New York </li></ul><ul><li>1890s: begin to see growth in number of school libraries </li></ul>
  11. 15. School Libraries: History <ul><li>1892: New York passed legislation to provide matching funds to purchase books </li></ul><ul><li>Why such slow growth? </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching method: rote memorization </li></ul>
  12. 16. Professionalism <ul><li>Public Libraries: services to children </li></ul><ul><li>ALA with NEA developed standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis centralization of collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Instruction </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. The Other Dewey <ul><li>John Dewey theories impacted the growth of school libraries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s growth & development (not subject matter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore subjects of interest to the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social experiences that teach self-direction </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. Staffing <ul><li>Often one professional library </li></ul><ul><li>Reports to school principal </li></ul><ul><li>May have Coordinator for the whole school system (dual reporting role) </li></ul><ul><li>May be closely aligned with IT </li></ul><ul><li>Paraprofessionals and/or volunteers </li></ul>
  15. 19. Funding <ul><li>Precarious at best </li></ul><ul><li>Poor economic times: 0% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies upon school fairs and donations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set by Board of Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community votes </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Policies <ul><li>Very important to set intellectual freedom policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when a parent questions a book? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay on shelve while reviewed be committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has community members, teachers, and board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimately goes to the Board of Education </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Issues <ul><li>Intellectual Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Internet and Social Networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nettracker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gives reading levels of websites </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Literacy </li></ul>