What Are School Libraries?


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What Are School Libraries?

  1. 1. WHAT ARESCHOOLLIBRARIES?Outdated book centers or vibrant centers of learning?Summer 2013
  2. 2. 2What is a school library?
  3. 3. 3Frank Zappa on librariesFrom the liner notes to his firstalbum, Freak Out! (1966)HUNGRY FREAKS, DADDY was written for CarlOrestes Franzoni. He is freaky down to his toe nails.Some day he will live next door to you and your lawnwill die. Drop out of school before your mind rots fromexposure to our mediocre educational system. Forgetabout the Senior Prom and go to the library and educateyourself if you’ve got any guts. Some of you like Peprallies and plastic robots who tell you what to read.Forget I mentioned it. This song has no message. Risefor the flag salute. [Emphasis added]• Comments on the song ―Hungry Freaks, Daddy‖ reproduced on websiteInformation is Not Knowledge
  4. 4. 4History of School LibrariesNot very well known!Although the American public school library isone of this nation’s most ubiquitous educationalinstitutions, we know very little about its history.• First sentence of:
  5. 5. 5Vintage ads for school libraries
  6. 6. 6Roles of the school library in historyLaurel Ann Clyde (born in Australia, becamelibrary educator in Reykjavik, Iceland):1. the school library established to supportthe teaching and learning activities of theschool2. school library established to providerecreational reading3. the library established to serve both theschool and the community4. school library established as a scholars’ library to serve theneeds of a particular group within the school5. the school library established as a memorial• Based on Clyde, Laurel A. (1981) The magic casements: a survey of school libraryhistory from the eighth to the twentieth century. PhD thesis, James Cook University assummarized in Laurel A. Clyde -- ThesisL. Anne Clyde1946-2005
  7. 7. 7Clyde’s conclusion 1Purpose of school libraries hasn’t changed muchhttp://murraylib600.org/ScholeLybrarie.htm
  8. 8. 8The library as center of the school?http://heartoftheschool.edublogs.org/http://stephanieharvey.com/home
  9. 9. 9Clyde’s conclusion 2
  10. 10. 10Support teaching and learning?Appears in several mission statements:
  11. 11. 11A supporting role only?What about enhancing?
  12. 12. 12The Instructional Role of the Media SpecialistHas it changed much?It is evident from an analysis of two data sourcesthat an evolution in the instructional role of thelibrary media specialist did occur from 1950 to1984. A clear pattern of progressive developmentof the instructional role has persisted in thestandards and the literature. The changes in thelibrary media specialist’s role from study hallmonitor to curriculum designer can certainly betermed substantive.• Craver, K. (1986, Summer). The Changing Instructional Role of the High School LibraryMedia Specialist, 1950–84: A Survey of Professional Literature, Standards, and ResearchStudies. School Library Media Quarterly, 14, 4: 183-91. Also available in print in Theemerging school library media program. Libraries Unlimited, 1988
  13. 13. 131945 BenchmarkFirst set of national standards for school librariesK-12School Libraries for Today and Tomorrow publishedby the American Library AssociationThese standards linked the quality of schoollibraries to the size of book collections and thefrequency of classroom teacher use of the library.Further, the school librarian was beginning to beseen as an instructional leader for the―mental, emotional and social growth of youngpeople.‖• Underwood, L. J. (2003). A case study of four school library mediaspecialists’ leadership in Louisiana ,‖ EDD dissertation, W. VA University, p.
  14. 14. 14Tracing the evolutionThe FiftiesThe decade between the close of World War IIand the mid-fifties was termed by manyeducators as a decade of American complacency.Americans had emerged victorious from a worldwar and were exulting in their acknowledgedsuper-power status. School librariansfloundered in a wave of anti-intellectualism andthe conformity that was precipitated bytechnological democracy and the Cold War.Teaching, despite the noticeable increase inaudiovisual services offered by schoollibraries, was still dominated by the textbook.• The Changing Instructional Role of the High SchoolMedia Specialist
  15. 15. 15The advent of the space age1957The launching of Sputnik in 1957 was thecatalyst that halted America’s complacencyand expedited the educational process.At this point, federal funds were madeavailable for the purchase of the schoollibrary as a resource center, and not merelya depository. By the late 1950s, schoolsbegan to focus on learning rather thanteaching, and on curriculum methods thatpermitted a broader instructional role forthe school librarian.• The Changing Instructional Role of the HighSchool Media Specialist
  16. 16. 16A new benchmarkStandards for School Library Programs(American Association for School Librarians, 1960)Published in collaboration with the Departmentof Audiovisual Instruction (DAVI) of NationalEducation Association• School Libraries, Gale Education EncyclopediaSpecified the collaborative leadershipresponsibilities of the school librarian withteachers regarding curriculum development andtextbook selection.• Underwood, ―A Case Study of Four School Library MediaSpecialists’ Leadership in Louisiana‖
  17. 17. 17The decade of fermentThe SixtiesIn school library development and education ingeneral, the 1960s can be described as a decadeof ferment. ―rhetoric and ideas abounded as towhat education would do to solve a number ofpressing social issues—from integrating theschools racially to promoting a love of readingamong the disadvantaged or disinterested.‖The school’s new emphasis on ―diversifiedlearning materials—both printed andnonprinted—for all subjects and levels ofability‖ finally brought to school librarians theopportunity for [a] greater instructional role.• The Changing Instructional Role of the High SchoolMedia Specialist
  18. 18. 18A major projectKnapp School Libraries Project (1963-1974)The Knapp Foundation supported curricularinnovations that included collaborative teachingwith the school librarian. For the first time, therole of the school librarian changed from akeeper of materials to an active participant in theacademic process. Thus, the Knapp Foundationrecognized the importance of the school librarianas an active participant in schools that embracedthe new reforms.• Underwood, ―A Case Study of Four School Library MediaSpecialists’ Leadership in Louisiana‖
  19. 19. 19New standards and new titleStandards for School Media Programs (ALA, 1969)ALA and the DAVI of NEA publishes Standards forSchool Media Programs, national guidelines that unifythe roles of librarians and audiovisual personnel underthe terminology of library media program and librarymedia specialist.• School Libraries, Education EncyclopediaSchool library media specialists were now responsiblefor non-print materials such as taperecorders, records, filmstrips, and film loops, whichrequired expertise in technology.• Underwood, Case Study
  20. 20. 20A time of actionThe SeventiesThis period witnessed an actual, rather thanmerely a proposed, change from passivelearning on the part of students to anenvironment in which students and teachersactively participated together in projects andactivities that served to convey informationpreviously provided by a textbook or a teacher.Within this environment of change, the schoollibrary finally receives assurance that itseducational goals and objectives, which in manycases were ahead of the times, were nowappropriate.• The Changing Instructional Role of the High SchoolMedia Specialist
  21. 21. 21New standards againMedia Programs: District and School(AASL and Association for Educational Communications andTechnology (DAVI of NEA became AECT in 1971))The 1975 standards . . . gave more attention tosystematic planning providing guiding principlesfor both site-level and district-level decision-making. By this point, the school library specialistwas seen as an integral part of the totalinstructional program.• Program Standards School Library Media SpecialistPreparation (AASL and NCATE, 2003), p. 5.
  22. 22. 22A mercurial environmentThe EightiesWhile the instructional role of the schoollibrary media specialist from 1980 to 1984could be characterized as a period ofadjustment concerning the implementation ofinstructional design activities, the introductionof computers presented library mediaspecialists with a new set of problems.There is evidence that more systematicapproaches were being followed for instructionand that library media specialists were beingurged to consider their educational role withinthe framework of the total program.• The Changing Instructional Role of the High SchoolMedia Specialist
  23. 23. 23Response to A Nation at Risk (1983)Alliance for Excellence: Librarians Respond to aNation at Risk (1984)Four basic concepts presented:• Learning begins before schooling.• Good schools require good school libraries.• People in a learning society need libraries throughout theirlives.• Public support of libraries is an investment in people andcommunities.– Shirley Fitzgibbons, School and Public Library Relationships:Essential Ingredients in Implementing Educational Reforms andImproving Student LearningSchool Library Media Research Volume 3 (2000)
  24. 24. 24The Information Power EraA major policy documentThe major development in 1988 in terms ofstandards was the publication of the new schoollibrary media guidelines, INFORMATIONPOWER (AASL & AECT, 1988). This documentpresents an active, forward-looking role forlibrary media programs based on the librarymedia specialist functioning as informationspecialist, teacher, and instructional consultant.Discussions of the guidelines are just beginning toappear in the literature; however, the documenthas already been presented to educators at alllevels.• Trends in Library and Information Science: 1989.ERIC Digest
  25. 25. 25Another major projectLibrary Power (1988-98)Inspired by the vision of Information Power (1988)Library Power programs established in 700 schools in19 communities nationwide―Faithful adoption of Library Powers corepractices, along with widespread acceptance of thesepractices, can lead to permanent change; similarly, assimilar policies are implemented elsewhereinstitutionalization of these practices is more likely.‖• ―What Works‖: Research You Can Use: The NationalLibrary Power ProjectTeacher Librarian, 27 (2) (1999, Nov-Dec).• See also Library Power Executive Summary: Findings from theNational Evaluation of the National Library Power Program
  26. 26. 26Affirmed that ―Student Achievement IS theBottom Line‖Information Power 2nd ed., 1998
  27. 27. 27Information Standards 1998http://umanitoba.ca/libraries/units/education/media/InformationLiteracyStandards_final.pdf
  28. 28. 28New standards, 2007http://www.ala.org/aasl/standards-guidelines/learning-standards
  29. 29. 29Applying the standardsStandards for the 21st-Century Learner inActionThis publication from AASL takes anin-depth look at the strands of the Standardsfor the 21st-Century Learner and the indicatorswithin those strands. It also answers such critical questionsas How do the strands—the skills, dispositions inaction, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies—relate to one another?Benchmarks are provided along with examples that showhow to put the learning standards into action. This is apractical book with examples of how to maximize theapplication of the learning standards at different gradelevels.
  30. 30. 30Empowering Learners: Guidelines forSchool Library ProgramsEmpowering Learners advances schoollibrary programs to meet the needs ofthe changing school library environment and isguided by the Standards for the 21st-Century Learnerand Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action.It builds on a strong history of guidelines publishedto ensure that school library program planners gobeyond the basics to providegoals, priorities, criteria, and general principles forestablishing effective library programs.New Guidelines 2008http://www.ala.org/aasl/standards-guidelines/program-guidelines
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32A leadership role?Essential for 21st century learning
  33. 33. 33Leadership in AASL guidelinesEmpowering learners: Chapter IVEmpowering learning through leadership:• Guideline: The school library mediaprogram is built by professionals whomodel leadership and best practicesfor the school community
  34. 34. 34Leadership for pre-service librariansALA/AASL Standards for InitialPreparation of School Librarians (2010)
  35. 35. 35International guidelines
  36. 36. 36A recent international statement International Association of School Librarianship -What is a school library? International Guidelinesdeveloped by IASL Research SIG.
  37. 37. 37An international initiativeSchool Library Proclamation: A Libraryfor Every School (2010) [115Kb 4 pages]Also on Facebook!http://www.facebook.com/EnsilEurope#!/ALibraryInEverySchool
  38. 38. 38A school library advocacy resourcethat’s 21st century!http://www.scoop.it/t/school-libraries-around-the-world
  39. 39. 39A 21st Century Vision for SchoolLibraries
  40. 40. 40More on Learning CommonsOriginsThe foundational ideas for thetransformation of a school library andcomputer lab into a learning commonswas first set forth in Loertscher,Koechlin, and Zwaan’s book:The New Learning Commons:Where Learners Win (2008).Foundational article: The Time is Now: Transform Your SchoolLibrary into a Learning Commons by Carol Koechlin, SandiZwaan, and David V. Loertscher• From Learning Commons Treasury, ed. by David Loertscher and Elizabeth―Betty‖ MarcouxSee also Learning Commons with Loertscher and Koechlin
  41. 41. 41Do school librarians make a difference?Latest Study: A full-time school librarian makes acritical difference in boosting student achievementThis study [from Pennsylvania] adds to the evidencethat all K–12 students need and deserve quality schoollibrary programs with full-time certified staff. Studentsare more likely to succeed when they have libraryprograms that are well staffed, wellfunded, technologically well equipped, wellstocked, and more accessible. And, the neediestlearners may benefit the most from trained librariansand quality library programs.• By Debra E. Kachel and Keith Curry Lance on March 7, 2013
  42. 42. 42School libraries in Kentuckyhttp://www.lrc.ky.gov/KRS/158-00/102.PDF
  43. 43. 43A Challenging questionDo we still needschool librariesand librarians?http://www.nais.org/Magazines-Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/The-New-School-Library.aspx