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Behaviorism Theory of Learning

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  • 1. Behaviorism Theory of Learning “ Teachers must learn how to teach ... they need only to be taught more effective ways of teaching.” -B. F. Skinner By: Brittaney
  • 2. Behaviorism
    • Behaviorism assumes that a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli.
    • Believes that a learner starts out with a clean slate, and behavior is shaped by positive and negative reinforcement.
    • Reinforcement, positive or negative, increases the possibility of an event happening again.
    • Punishment, both positive and negative, decreases the possibility of an event happening again.
  • 3. Behaviorism cont…
    • Positive reinforcement is the application of a stimulus.
    • Negative reinforcement is the withdrawal of a stimulus.
    • Behaviorism is a precursor to cognitive learning.
  • 4. Important People in Behaviorism
    • Ivan Pavlov- Did the experiment with the dogs. Came up with the theory of classical conditioning.
    • B.F. Skinner- Developed the theory of operant conditioning. Operant Conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior.
    • John B. Watson- The “Little Albert” experiment. He gets credit for establishing the psychological school of behaviorism.
  • 5. Pavlov’s Dog Experiment
    • Ivan Pavlov did a famous experiment that demonstrates the theory of classical conditioning (or respondent conditioning).
    • Every time Pavlov would bring put out the dogs’ food he would ring a bell.
    • After doing this for a certain period of time, Pavlov would ring the bell without presenting food. The dogs would salivate just from the sound of the bell.
  • 6. Pavlov’s Dog Experiment cont…
    • The connection the dogs made between the bell ringing and the food, caused the dogs to associate the two, so they responded to the bell even without the presence of the food.
  • 7. Important B.F. Skinner Theories
    • Schedules of reinforcement- Continuous, interval, and ration. These theories are used often in daily life with everything from parenting to schooling to work life.
    • Operant Conditioning- the use of consequences to modify the occurrence or form of behavior. Differs from classical conditioning in that it deals with voluntary behavior.
  • 8. What teachers do under this theory
    • Give the learner immediate feedback.
    • Break down the task into small steps
    • Repeat the directions as many times as possible
    • Work from the most simple to the most complex tasks
    • Give positive reinforcement
    • Skinner believed that positive reinforcement is more effective in changing behavior then punishment.
    • All of these are to be adjusted to be age appropriate
  • 9. What students do under this theory
    • Respond to reinforcement
    • Pace themselves in an assignment to work from the most basic to the more complicated concepts
    • Ask questions for more clarity in directions
    • Ask for feedback
  • 10. Behavioral Theory and my own Teaching
    • I think that the behavioral theory can be very useful in my own teaching.
    • I can use reinforcement to encourage students to do their best work and to encourage improvement.
    • I will try to avoid punishment, unless absolutely neccesary.
    • I will clearly explain my expectations and have clear, printed out and verbally explained, directions to assignments.
    • I will always be positive and let my students know that they can do it, and can do it well.
  • 11. Credits
    • “ Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom”- Shelly, Cashman, Gunter, and Gunter
    • www.learning-theories.com
    • www.learningandteaching.info/learning/index.htm
    • Wikipedia.org
    • http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/pavlov/images/serie2.gif
    • http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/BFSkinner.bmp
    • http://schoolbox.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/class-raising-hands.jpg