Behaviorism The prediction and control of human behavior in which introspection and/or independent thinking play no essential part of its teaching method A worldview that operates on a principle of “stimulus-response” All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness. Behaviors recognize no dividing line between man and animal-both learn to behave solely through a system of positive and negative rewards.
Behavior is shaped through positive (stimulus) and negative (withholding stimulus) reinforcement, whichincreases the probability that the anteceded behavior will happen again.“Behaviorists such as Pavlov, Skinner, Watson, and Bandura have contributed a great deal to the understanding of human behavior.”
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Famous for his behavioral experiments with dogs Used a type of conditioning to teach dogs to salivate when he rang a bell-Classical Conditioning Scientist who used these experiments to study digestion, but as a result, other behaviorists studied his work as an example of stimulus response Won Noble Prize in Physiology in 1904
B.F Skinner (1904-1990) Operant Conditioning- describes learning that is controlled and results in shaping behavior through the reinforcement of stimulus response patterns Conducted experiments with pigeons and rewarded them when he saw them behaving in a desired manner Ultimately, he taught them to engage in complex tasks such as bowling in a specially constructed alley. Found reinforcement as a powerful motivator
John Watson (1878-1958) Conducted the “Little Albert” Experiment- conditioned small children to fear white rats He accomplished this by repeatedly pairing white rats with a loud frightening noise Demonstrated that this fear could be generalized to other white furry objects Graduated from Furman University with a Masters Degree Earned a Ph.D.in Psychology at the University of Chicago
Albert Bandura (1925-present) Famous on ideas for social learning, which he renamed Social Cognitive Theory Believes that people acquire behaviors first through the observation of others and then by using those observations to imitate what they have observed Has focused his worked on the concept of self- efficacy, a personal observation about one’s perceived ability to feel, think, and motivate one’s self to learn Also focused on imagery, a persons ability to retain information through images in the mind
Ivan PavlovGraduated from B.F SkinnerUniversity of St. Entered PsychologyPetersburg Department of HarvardThen entered UniversityMilitary Medical Invented cumulativeAcademy Albert Bandura recorder Graduated from University of British Columbia with Bolocan Award in Psychology
Classroom Implications Teacher Student Reward students based Through positive on their behavior with reinforcement, student is extra computer time. motivated to do better (with technology) and succeed. Reward students with Through negative extra credit points, reinforcement, student prizes, homework pass, becomes discouraged food, and recognition. and indifferent about (without technology) assignments.
Thoughts on Theory Good way of modifying classroom behavior Great way to make students understand how they should behave in a classroom setting Allows student to understand that good behaviors are rewarded and bad behaviors are punished Important to teach students at a young age that behavior has positive and negative outcomes- reward motivates a student to work harder, while opposition makes a student feel inadequate