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Kostova learning theories


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Kostova learning theories

  1. 1. BEHAVIORISM:- “Behaviorism is the philosophy of science underpinning behavioral psychology.”- “Behaviorism is a worldview that operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.””- Basically, Bahaviorism is observable aspects of human behavior.- The grandfather of behaviorism was Ivan Pavlov along with originators and important contributors: John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, E. L. Thorndike (connectionism), Bandura, Tolman (moving toward cognitivism)
  2. 2. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING..“ the process of reflex learning—investigated by Pavlov—through which an unconditioned stimulus (e.g. food) whichproduces an unconditioned response (salivation) is presentedtogether with a conditioned stimulus (a bell), such that thesalivation is eventually produced on the presentation of theconditioned stimulus alone, thus becoming a conditionedresponse.”
  4. 4. POSITIVE & NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT“Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again. In contrast, punishment (both positive and negative) decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again. Positive indicates the application of a stimulus; Negative indicates the withholding of a stimulus. Learning is therefore defined as a change in behavior in the learner. Lots of (early) behaviorist work was done with animals (e.g. Pavlov’s dogs) and generalized to humans.”
  5. 5. CLASSROOM IMPLICATIONSTEACHERS:- Break down tasks in small steps- Give positive reinforcement- Give immediate feedback – don’t let lesson go- Repetition as much as it’s needed- Must be age appropriateWITH TECHNOLOGY:- Explain methods and break them down for understanding- Positive reinforcement when students accomplish a step from a task- Have repetitive assignments in intervals to keep enforcing what was learned
  6. 6. CLASSROOM INPLICATIONSSTUDENTS:- Respond to reinforcement- Ask questions- Ask for feedbackWITH TECHNOLOGY:- Students are faced with a set pace with working on assignments that are more basic to more complicated- Ask for help, if needed, especially with new programs- Ask for feedback on how they’re doing on their work
  7. 7. BRINGING BEHAVIORIST IN MY CLASSROOM- I believe behavioral theory is inevitable in a teaching setting and very useful if taught correctly.- Reinforcement can be used to encourage my students to do their best and encourage learning and improvement.- Avoiding negative reinforcement, such as punishment, unless absolutely necessary.- I would have a clear outline for what I expect out of my students in individual assignments, both verbally and visually.- I will always encourage my students with positive reinforcement and remind them that they can do anything they set their minds to.
  8. 8. SOURCES:- behaviorism.html- Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology in a Connected World (7th Ed.), Shelly, Cashman, Gunter, and Gunter (2012)