Foundational Scientists• Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) & John B. Watson(1878-1958). : Classic Conditioning• B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): Operant Conditioning• Albert Bandura (1925- ): Observationalmodeling
• Ivan Plavlov– classic conditioning- reflexive orautomatic type of learning in which astimulus acquires the capacity to evokea response that was originally evokedby another stimulus.• Pavlov was a Russian physicist whobelieved the most prominent form of learninginvolved making a new association betweenevents in the environment.• He proved his hypothesis by conducting anexperiment where he trained dogs tosalivate at the sound a bell. He achievedthis by conditioning a previouslyunconditioned stimulus, the bell, to illicit aconditioned response, salivation. Each timePavlov gave his test dogs food covered inmeat powder, he rang a bell. Eventually, thedogs learned to salivate at the sound of thebell whether or not meat powder wasactually present.Classic Conditioning
• John B. Watson (1878-1958)• Watson continued Pavlov’s work byapplying this theory to humans,specifically a baby name Albert.• The unconditioned stimulus in thisexperiment was a jarring noise andthe unconditioned response wasfear of rats.• Initially, Albert had exhibited no fearwhen a rat was presented to him,but after several traumatizingexperiences in which each time theypresented a rat to Albert a jarringnoise followed, the unconditionedresponse of the fear of ratspresented itself.…Classic Conditioning
• B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)– Operant conditioning- a processthat attempts to modify behaviorthrough the use of positive andnegative reinforcement.• Operant conditioning is the secondpart to associative learning• Skinner conducted experimentspigeons and rewarded them whenthey behaved in a desired mannerusing positive reinforcers.• Positive reinforcers are favorableevents or outcomes that are given tothe individual after the desiredbehavior. This may come in theform of praise, rewards, etc.Operant Conditioning
…Operant Conditioning• Other experiment that Skinner conductedinvolved these variables:– Negative reinforcers typically are characterized by theremoval of an undesired or unpleasant outcome after thedesired behavior. A response is strengthened assomething considered negative is removed.– Positive punishment is when unfavorable events oroutcomes are given in order to weaken the response thatfollows.– Negative punishment is characterized by when anfavorable event or outcome is removed after a undesiredbehavior occurs.
• Albert Bandura (1925- )– Social learning theory- peoplelearn from one another, viaobservation, imitation, andmodeling; Social learning theoryexplains human behavior in termsof continuous reciprocalinteraction between cognitive,behavioral, and environmentalinfluences.• Bandura’s work centered around theconcept of self efficacy– Self efficacy- personal observationabout one’s perceived ability tofeel , think, and motivate oneself• When Bandura started to reflect on aperson’s ability to retain informationthrough imagery he started to fall intothe category of a cognivitist.Observational Modeling
In The Classroom (Teachers)• Teachers can incorporate behavioral learningtheories in several different ways, but most usea direct teaching method.• Examples are:– Tutorials– Drill and practice– Behavioral simulations– Programed instruction• Integrated learning systems are lessons thatcombine multiple of these strategies.
In The Classroom (Students)• In order to be learning, students need to beengaged in lessons and put forth effort.• Teachers giving reinforcement allows thestudents to see that the more effort they put forththey better they do in school.• Another idea is using spreadsheet software andhaving your students track their effort using aneffort rubric given by the teacher, will reinforcelearning when they are able to see that effortdoes produce positive outcomes.
Reflection• I would definitely use some aspects of the thistheory in my classroom, such as the teachingmethods:– Tutorials– Drill and practice– Integrated learning systems• I also really like the idea of students tracking theirown grades on a spread sheet so they can see howeffort does have a positive correlation with bettergrades. I think this is especially a good idea foraround the 5th grade so students can see this beforemiddle school.
Credits• http://www.learning-theories.com/• Shelly, Gary B., Glenda A. Gunter, and Randolph E. Gunter. "SpecialFeature: Learning Theorists and Educational Research." TeachersDiscovering Computers: Integrating Technology in a Connected World.Boston, MA: Course Technology Cengage Learning, 2012. 257-80.Print.• http://www.biography.com/people/ivan-petrovich-pavlov-9435332(photograph)• http://www.biography.com/people/john-b-watson-37049 (photograph)• http://www.biography.com/people/bf-skinner-9485671 (photograph)• http://www.education.com/reference/article/bandura-albert-1925-/(Photograph)• http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm• http://lonnieashton.edublogs.org/2010/03/22/behaviorism-in-practice/