Urban Development


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Urban Development

  1. 1. Urban Development Unit-V
  2. 2. Urban Development Introduction to Urban Development • Urbanization in India with reference to growth of cities, pattern, growth its trends, causes and prospects of urbanization, cost of urbanization, growth of urban population, resources of urban development, spatial pattern of urbanization, problems of metropolitan cities in India policy issues and their need, trends and projections for urbanization.
  3. 3. Urbanization in India • Although the population in India is still predominantly rural, the progress of urbanization during the last two decades has been fairly rapid. During the first three decades of the century, the rate of urbanization was very slow. • But it was during the thirties that urbanization began at a rapid rate. During the forties, the rate of urbanization has been even more rapid. The urban population of Indian Union alone has Increased by over 18 million and the proportion of urban population in total has increased to 17.3 %
  4. 4. Urbanization in India
  5. 5. Patterns of Urbanization • In the absence of separate data on the natural increase of urban and rural population, it is not possible to determine what proportion of the increase in urban population during each decade has been due to natural increase and what proportion is due to migration. • The natural Increase of urban population would have amounted to about 5.9 million. The balance 12.2 million therefore represents migration.
  6. 6. Patterns of Urbanization
  7. 7. Patterns of Urbanization
  8. 8. Patterns of Urbanization
  9. 9. Patterns of Urbanization • The proportion of the increase in working population of rural areas absorbed by urban migration would undoubtedly have been considerably higher than this, because as is well known, the percentage of workers in the population migration to towns is generally higher than this in the general population. Urbanization is, therefore, already a very significant factor in relieving the pressure of population and in particular in absorbing the increases in working population of rural areas
  10. 10. Patterns of Urbanization
  11. 11. Growth of Cities • A notable feature of urban development in India is the very rapid growth of cities and large metropolitan centers. In 1931, there were 35 cities in Undivided India with a total population of 9.14 million. By 1951, the Indian Union alone had 73 cities and their population totaled 23.55 million. Thus, in 20 years, the population of cities has increased almost three times. In 1951 city population formed 38 percent of the urban population and nearly 7 % of the total population of the country. During the 1941-51 decade, out of the total increase of 18 million in the urban population, one half was accounted for by increase in city population.
  12. 12. Growth of Cities • Among the cities also, there is a marked concentration of population in the very urban centers. Over 12 million people or half of the city population is concentrated in 8 cities with a population of five lakhs and over. Five metropolitan centers Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi and Hyderabad each with a population of one million and over have population between 1,00,000 and 250,000 have only about 6 million inhabitants.
  13. 13. Growth of Cities
  14. 14. Growth of Cities • The Great majority of Indian Cities are commercial centers of agricultural regions. Capitals of States, Industrial Centers and Transportation centers have also originated in most cases as regional centers.
  15. 15. Growth of Cities
  16. 16. Growth of Cities • In order to get an Idea of the growth of different types of cities, cities were divided into the following 8 classes, depending upon their economic functions: • Capital(C) • Non Capital but important Government Offices (G) • Industrial Centers (I) • Port (P) • Regional Commercial Centers (R) • Pilgrimage Center (PI) • Hill Station or Other Resort town (H) • Military Station (M) • Each city was given one or more symbols depending upon its important functions.
  17. 17. Growth of Cities
  18. 18. Growth of Cities
  19. 19. Growth of Cities • Of the 13 cities with population increases of more than 300 percent, 3 are capitals, 2 are non capitals with important government offices and 3 industrial centers. Of the cities with population increases between 200 and 300 %, 5 are capitals, and 3 are industrial centers.
  20. 20. Causes of Urbanization • The principal cause of urbanization in India as in other countries, is the growth of modern type industry, commerce and service occupations all of which are concentrated in urban areas, and especially in the cities. During the last decade, two other factors have accelerated the movement of population to urban areas and especially to the cities
  21. 21. Causes of Urbanization
  22. 22. Causes of Urbanization • Expansion in government services, commerce and industry as a result of second world war. • Migration of displaced persons from Pakistan after the partition of the country in 1947. A large number of displaced persons living in the urban areas of Pakistan, as also those living in rural area but following non- agricultural occupations have settled down in urban areas in India. As against this emigration to Pakistan from the urban areas of India has been considerably less.
  23. 23. Causes of Urbanization
  24. 24. Causes of Urbanization
  25. 25. Causes of Urbanization • Also, it must be pointed out that the very fact that displaced persons have settled down in Urban areas, and have been absorbed, by and large, in the urban economy is a result of the existence of adequate employment opportunities in Urban areas. • The Increase in urban population due to settlement of displaced persons should therefore be considered only a special phase of the general process of urbanization.
  26. 26. The Cost of Urbanization • Urbanization is very costly and this cost itself is likely to stand in the way of rapid urbanization of the country. • Take housing for example. In the rural areas, most of the land less laborers and sub marginal cultivators who constitute the great majority of the migrants to the towns, live in huts and similar very modest dwellings. • There is no elaborate provisions for sanitation, water supply facilities etc. Such living conditions are possible in the rural areas. But, when these people move into towns, provisions has to be made for a minimum standard of housing as also for providing basic necessities like
  27. 27. The Cost of Urbanization
  28. 28. The Cost of Urbanization • The number of additional families in urban areas as a a result of the growth of urban population during the last decade may be estimated roughly at 3 ½ million. • To provide housing alone for this minimum standard of 2000 Rs would mean a capital outlay of Rs 700 crores. The expenditure for other civic amenities would be in additional.
  29. 29. The Cost of Urbanization • Thus the provisions of minimum housing for the increase in Urban population alone would take approximately 10 % of the total investment of the country. • As a result partly of high costs and partly on account of other difficulties like shortages of building materials, expansion of housing and other facilities in the urban areas lagged far behind. • The situation is now much better, in most cities as a result of building activities of the last four to five years.
  30. 30. The Cost of Urbanization
  31. 31. The Prospect of Urbanization • Although it is extremely difficult to forecast the future trends in urban development, a few observations may be made on the basis of the demographic trends of the past few decades and the foreseeable trends in the economic development of the country.
  32. 32. The Prospect of Urbanization • The first five year plan did not envisage rapid industrialization. Its emphasis was mainly on Increase in agriculture production and on development of rural areas. Although these two are likely to continue to receive primary attention in the second five year plan is likely to be much greater emphasis on industrial development.
  33. 33. The Prospect of Urbanization • The emphasis on small-scale industries is necessary for tackling the enormous problem of providing employment to the large manpower of the country. The industrial dispersal to small and medium towns is a trend in all countries, and is being accelerated by such developments as transmission of electricity over long distances at economic rates, and growth of motor transport. In a country like India the very high cost of development of large urban centers is also likely to be a factor against increasing concentration of population in large cities.
  34. 34. The Prospect of Urbanization
  35. 35. Growth Trends • As regards growth trends for individual types of towns, we may say • Capital will continue to grow as the sphere of governmental activity will continue to expand, especially in the social welfare and economic fields. • Many small and medium sized towns will grow rapidly as agricultural production increases and the rural areas develop, and especially as electricity and communications are further extended. Towns with special advantage like cheap electricity power, availability of raw materials or good communications will grow most rapidly.
  36. 36. Growth Trends • Some of the medium-sized and smaller cities, whose advantages have not been sufficiently realized, may grow rapidly. Example of such rapid growth during the last decade have been Bangalore, Pune, Dehradun.
  37. 37. Growth Trends
  38. 38. Growth Trends • Large cities are extremely congested, especially in their central areas. They are not likely to maintain the phenomenal growth rate of the last one or two decades; their growth will be slower and will be mostly at the periphery. The process of the growth of suburbs and satellite towns, which has already started, is expected to be accelerated. • Close proximity to large cities is still a great advantage for businesses, and for many types of industries. Transport, skilled labour, power, water supply and numerous other facilities can still be had much more cheaply in cities than elsewhere. A crucial advantage is the remarkable concentration of capital, enterprise and educated manpower in the cities.
  39. 39. Growth Trends
  40. 40. Understanding Urbanization • Urbanization is a process of great economic and social significance. Although in the case of India, there are difficulties and the character of the process may differ from that in the west due to particular social and economic conditions, there can be no question that urbanization is likely to be an important feature of the demographic situation in India during the next few decades.
  41. 41. Understanding Urbanization • The character of the movement, the forces that impel it at the rural and urban ends, the fluctuations in it from year to year should be carefully analyzed and properly understood. • Such understanding is very important for formulation of economic and social policies and for the proper direction of the movement itself.
  42. 42. Understanding Urbanization • The National Sample Survey, which undertakes collection of comprehensive economic data for the whole country has been extended to urban areas. These studies and surveys will collect detailed information on various aspect of urbanization, the magnitude and character of migration, the social and economic conditions of the migrant to mention only one, which will make possible much better understanding of the urban problems than is possible with the data available at present.
  43. 43. Understanding Urbanization
  44. 44. Resources for Urban Development • At the heart of India’s urban problem are grossly inadequate inputs of finances and management needed for efficient functioning of urban government and for expansion of housing and services to keep pace with the rapidly growing urban population. Provision of adequate finance will not be easy because of the great demand. But steady progress toward reducing the present inadequacy can be made if there is greater perception of the interdependency between urban and rural development.
  45. 45. Resources for Urban Development • The present shortage of urban housing and the inefficiency of urban services not only cause great hardship to the urban population but also results in enormous losses of output. They act as a major disincentive on product investment. The letter effect is most apparent in the case of services such as electric power, for prolonged cuts and erratic supplies have become a daily occurrence in most cities.
  46. 46. Resources for Urban Development • Most of the funds needed to finance expansion or improvement of urban housing and essential services will have to be provided, as at present by grants and loans by the central government and channeled through the state governments or by loans from financial institutions which are controlled by the central or state governments or by loans from financial institutions which are controlled by the central or state governments. It would be unrealistic to expect the municipal bodies, even of the largest cities, to raise more than a small proportion of the funds needed for these purposes.
  47. 47. Resources for Urban Development
  48. 48. Urban Planning • The plans for individual cities and towns should form part of the five-year and annual plans of the states in which they are located, so that they can be financed as part of the state plans. Preparation of urban plans and their integration with the planes of states will also give the municipal bodies a strong incentive for greater mobilization of local resources.
  49. 49. Urban Planning • The practice of matching grants, under which the cost of implementing a project is shared between the state government and local communities, has been successfully used for rural development programmes. It can be used even more effectively for urban development programmes because the potential for local urban development programmes. It can be used even more effectively for urban development programmes because the potential for local resource mobilization is greater in the urban area.
  50. 50. Management • The principal need is for providing highquality managers and technical officers to run large cities and for implementing development projects and programs. A number of related development lead us to expect progressive improvement in the availability of high-quality managers and technical officers for urban administration and urban development projects.
  51. 51. Management
  52. 52. Better Manager and Technical Officers • Similar developments- limited opportunities in the state or national governments and increasingly attractive opportunities in municipal administrations should attract a growing number of well-trained administrators and professional officers. Such opportunity will, in future be available only to a very few members of the higher administrative services.
  53. 53. Better Manager and Technical Officers
  54. 54. Better Manager and Technical Officers • Most of those who have filled top management or technical positions in these cities find that those posts offer opportunities for achievement which are as good as any available in the state or national government. • The commissioner and the senior technical officer of the municipal corporation of a large city can immediately see the result of their decisions, into increasing in economic activity or in the welfare of hundreds of thousands of people. Most of their counterparts in the state or national bureaucracies, on the other hand, see themselves as merely cogs in a giant machine who have only a minor role in its functioning.
  55. 55. Increasing Participation of Business Leaders in Urban Affairs • The prospects of expansion and consequent growth of opportunities for management and technical personnel are greater in the private sector than in the public sector. But the challenges and opportunities in municipal administration will, in the near future, begins to attract a significant number of managers and technocrats from the private sector. One reason for this trend will be the increasing participation of leaders of business and private industry in urban affairs.
  56. 56. Increasing Participation of Business Leaders in Urban Affairs
  57. 57. Growth of the Urban Population • The World Development report 1984, has on the assumption of a high rate of rural-to-urban migration, projected a growth rate of the urban population averaging 4.2 % a year during the period of 1980-2000 period. • The seventh Five-Year Plan’s projection assumes a rate similar to the average rate of 3.5 % experienced during the 1961-1981 period. Mohan, however, projects a sharp slowdown of the urban growth rate during the 1990’s with a similar decline in the growth rate of the total population.
  58. 58. Growth of the Urban Population
  59. 59. Growth of the Urban Population • And would constitute one-third of the total population. • Both the WDR and the Seventh Plan also assumes rapid growth of gross deposit product (GDP) per capita. • The fastest growth rates were recorded by the cities with population of 5,00,000 or more, excluding, however, the four metropolitan cities of Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi. These cities registered average growth rate of 3.3 % a year during both decades. • The low growth rates were recorded by the small urban places with populations below 50,000 and especially those with population below 20,000.
  60. 60. Growth of the Urban Population • Three factors contributed to rapid growth of the larger urban places; natural increase of the urban population; in migration from villages or smaller urban places; and expansion of urban boundaries to include adjacent villages and small towns.
  61. 61. Growth of the Urban Population
  62. 62. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • During the early 1960s, much discussion took place about the most appropriate spatial pattern of urbanization for India. • The Impetus for the discussion came from the industrial planners and economists who were concerned with location of industries and from urban planners who were preparing urban development plans. Industrialization was seen as the key element in urbanization despite mounting evidences that the need of modern industry for labour were relatively limited far less than they had been undergoing industrialization.
  63. 63. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization
  64. 64. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • The consensus was in favour of dispersed development of industries, which would contribute to disperse urbanization. Several strands of through converged to form this consensus. First was the realization that urbanization, with a focus on rapid growth of the large metropolitan cities, would involve high costs of expansion. These costs would be much lower, however, in small urban places and on the outskirts of large cities, and there would also be greater scope for use of simple technology and cheap local materials. Self help by the beneficiaries could reduce the cost further.
  65. 65. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization
  66. 66. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • The second strand of thought was promotion of small-scale and agro-based Industries. The employment potential of such industries was much larger than of large, capital –intensive industries. Furthermore, growth of small and agro-based industries. Furthermore growth of small towns would promote growth of entrepreneurship and diffusion of Industrial skills.
  67. 67. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization
  68. 68. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • A Third consideration was the need to accelerate development of backward regions. The political leaders of these regions first concentrated their efforts on securing large, central financed resources development on industrial projects: Irrigation and hydrostatic projects in the early 1950’s and public –sector industrial projects in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The projects were seen as the nuclei of regional growth which would through their multiple backward and forward set in motion a process of rapid economic growth in the region.
  69. 69. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization
  70. 70. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • Official intervention for promoting dispersed industrial development included both incentives and sanctions. From the outset the emphasis was on the former. The principal incentives were providing land and various infrastructure facilities needed by the industrial units. Quickly and at low cost, providing concessional loans and other fiscal incentives for the entrepreneurs, and providing technical assistance for project appraisal and selection of equipment, for example, or in certain areas of management.
  71. 71. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • These facilities were provided typically for industries locating in the industrial estate or industrial area which began to be built by the state governments from the mid 1950s under a programme sponsored by the central government. • While promoting development of small industries and industrial dispersal remained the professed objective for industrial estates, their actual location indicates that the state governments attached at least equal importance to promote the industrial development in states.
  72. 72. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • Thus while many industrial estates and areas were built in backward regions or near medium sized towns, some of the largest and most successful ones were located in the vicinity of large cities, including the state capital and metropolitan cities like Delhi, Chennai, and Mumbai. • In their eagerness to promote development of industry, the states government were ready to provide these facilities wherever the prospective industrialists wanted them.
  73. 73. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization
  74. 74. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • Despite the lack of interest, one element of the strategy of industrial location has remained; encouraging location at the outskirts of cities and in backward regions. Such location have continued to be encouraged through substantial capital investment by the state governments in developing industrial areas and estates.
  75. 75. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization
  76. 76. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • On the other hand, there has been little action to check rapid growth of the large cities despite evidence of increasing deterioration in urban conditions.
  77. 77. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization
  78. 78. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • The inevitable of rapid growth of the cities, including the largest like Mumbai and Delhi, has been accepted. Indeed, not only has the growth not been discouraged, but it has at times been encouraged by official actions.
  79. 79. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • On the contrary, further concentration of population and economic activities in the central area of the city was allowed and even encouraged by permitting construction of high rise residential and commercial buildings.
  80. 80. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization
  81. 81. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • The wider range and higher quality of infrastructure and social services in or near the city is itself very attractive, because the range of such services is limited away from the cities and their functional efficiency is low. • States like Maharashtra may continue their policies of diverting industries away from the over urbanized Mumbai-Poona region to the less developed region of the estate, but the dominant trend among the state government will be toward further back-pedaling on the industrial location issue and encouraging prospecting investors to locate industries almost anywhere they want.
  82. 82. The Spatial Pattern of Urbanization • Indeed, the state governments efforts to attract industrial investment in their states are expected to become aggressive in the future, culminating at times in intense competition to attract large industrial units.
  83. 83. Problems of Metropolitan Cities • Despite the improved prospects of acquiring the funds and top level personnel for urban administration and undertaking projects to meet the needs of urban growth the prospects of metropolitan cities are much less sanguine. • Indeed, in the case of Mumbai and Kolkata, where the urban systems already showed inability to cope with the present populations, it is not at all clear how the pressure created by the projected doubling of the population will be met.
  84. 84. Problems of Metropolitan Cities • The answers to the question will relate, finally, to political judgment and the will to provide the needed resources and ensure that institutional and administrative reforms are undertaken and that projects and programmes are implemented with speed and efficiency • Some of the task that needs special attention in these cities include housing, food supply, water and electricity, transport, maintenance of peace and security and restriction of immigration.
  85. 85. Problems of Metropolitan Cities Housing • Expansion and improvement of housing will remain the most difficult problem. The present deficiency is so acute and growing so rapidly, and at the costs of expansion of housing are so high in comparison with the incomes of great majority of urban residents, that the best that can be hoped, even with the most intensive efforts, is avoidance of a serious aggravation of the present situation.
  86. 86. Housing
  87. 87. Problems of Metropolitan Cities • In Delhi, for instances, the current estimate is of a shortage of 3,00,000 dwelling units and a requirement of 1.62 million units over the next two decades. • Aquition of land for public housing for the poor is itself a most difficult problem. Reference was made earlier to the fact that acquisition of land for such housing was delayed and the area of land available for this purpose was progressively reduced by private interests who obtained political support and used a series of court injuctions against acquisition.
  88. 88. Problems of Metropolitan Cities
  89. 89. Problems of Metropolitan Cities Food Supply • Ensuring both adequate supplies of Cereal to the cities and their availability at prices fixed by the government, never easy, should not be unmanageable of the growth rate of cereal output achieved in Industry during the last twenty years can be maintained. The spread of the wheat revolution from its core area in Punjab, Haryana, Bihar and West Bengal and the improvement in the last few years in the rate of growth of rice output give hope of this prospect.
  90. 90. Problems of Metropolitan Cities
  91. 91. Problems of Metropolitan Cities • Increasing, or even maintaining, the present low levels of consumptions of foods rich in protein, minerals and vitamins or even such essential as oils and fats will be very difficult unless there are major improvements in the technologies or producing, processing, and transporting these staples and their prices get more in line with the income of the great majority of urban residents.
  92. 92. Problems of Metropolitan Cities Water and Electricity • The problem of providing adequate water and electricity could grow even worse unless there are sustained efforts to increase supplies. Large investments in expansions of the systems of supply, transmission and distribution, as well as progressive improvements in their management, will be needed. Expanding the water supply may present a more complex problem than that of electricity. • The acute shortage of water experienced in Chennai in 1984 is an indication of these difficulties.
  93. 93. Problems of Metropolitan Cities
  94. 94. Problems of Metropolitan Cities Transport Expansion of the transport system to cope with the needs of growth will present special problems in all the cities. The worst case again is Kolkata, where the transport system is a nightmare. In Mumbai too, the transport system is approaching conditions of near chaos and the cost of its expansion will be immense. If a large part of the projected growth takes place on the mainland across the bay from the present city, large investment will be required for construction of bridges and other works linking the transport system of the two parts of the city.
  95. 95. Problems of Metropolitan Cities
  96. 96. Problems of Metropolitan Cities Maintenance Peace and Security • This task will require political and administrative management of a very high order. Above all, the cities must insure access to the basic needs for food and water, access to other essential services and housing and opportunities for gaining employment. The tensions ever present below the surface in the Indian Cities, tensions which find their outlet in periodic outbreak of violence, can be kept within manageable limits, and the growth of underworld activities curtailed, only when these fundamental conditions are met.
  97. 97. Problems of Metropolitan Cities
  98. 98. Problems of Metropolitan Cities Restriction In-Migration to the Cities • From time to time there is demand for curbing inmigration to the Metropolitan cities, and to smaller cities such as Bangalore, which have experienced very rapid growth during the last two or three decades. • The motive for the demand may be political, or they may be administrative. • The only solution to the problem of inmigration to the giant cities is to increase the attraction of alternatives, including satellite town.
  99. 99. Problems of Metropolitan Cities
  100. 100. Problems of Metropolitan Cities • India’s Cities and Urban regions face a difficult future. Urban Infrastructure and housing are inadequate and cannot absorb the massive number of newcomers. Urban economic and social conditions are deteriorating, which results in higher levels of unemployment and social unrest. In these adverse circumstances India’s urban areas must become the focus for new policy initiatives emphasizing population control, rural development, and urban growth containment.
  101. 101. The Story of Dharavi: Largest Slum, Enterprising People • Spread over 175 hectares and swarming with one million people during the day, Dharavi in Mumbai is extraordinary mix of most unusual people’. They have come from many parts of India. Living in Dharavi is not easy. • Within congested Mumbai, Dharavi has the highest density of population, an unbelievable 45,000 persons per hectare. Everywhere there are open drains, piles of un-cleaned garbage, filth, and pitiful shakes. The other parts of the city’s population would like to believe that Dharavi does not exist.
  102. 102. The Story of Dharavi: Largest Slum, Enterprising People
  103. 103. The Story of Dharavi: Largest Slum, Enterprising People • For them, the slums are dirty, and the inhabitants are criminals. Over the years, unsuccessful attempts were made to ‘develop’ Dharavi. The story of Dharavi tell us that managing the urban population is becoming a bigger and more complex problem with each passing day.
  104. 104. The Story of Dharavi: Largest Slum, Enterprising People
  105. 105. References • Urbanization Urban Development Metropolitan Cities in India • Dr V. Nath Concept Publications &
  106. 106. Thanks …