Pastoral Extension Systems


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A synthesis of a series of national and regional consultations on the future of agricultural/ pastoral extension in Ethiopia by Amdissa Teshome.

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Pastoral Extension Systems

  2. 2. ORIGIN OF THE PRESENTATION <ul><li>This is not a research output in the conventional sense </li></ul><ul><li>It is a synthesis of a series of national and regional consultations on the future of agricultural/ pastoral extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 National consultations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Regional consultations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper presentations + group discussions + field visits to FTCs and FRGs </li></ul></ul> ETHIOPIA No. of participants National 70 Regional 129 Total 199 Papers Gov’t Non-gov Total National 2 4 6 Regional 8 5 13 Total 10 9 19
  3. 3. OBJECTIVE <ul><li>To explain why past extension systems have failed to serve pastoral livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>To present national and regional responses to the critics </li></ul><ul><li>To provide some international perspective on PES </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest some issues for consideration in the design of PES </li></ul> ETHIOPIA
  4. 4. BACKGROUND <ul><li>Ethiopian agricultural extension system is 50-100 years old </li></ul><ul><li>It has gone through numerous models of extension (almost testing ground for imported models) </li></ul><ul><li>Overall transfer of technology (ToT) has been the dominant model </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory approaches by NGOs (small scale) </li></ul>ETHIOPIA
  5. 5. STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES <ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>The largest public extension system in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>Close to 100% coverage in terms of DAs and FTCs </li></ul><ul><li>ATVETs for human capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Extension is now seen as critical to the agricultural transformation agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Continues to attract donor support </li></ul> ETHIOPIA
  6. 6. <ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>No standard definition of extension </li></ul><ul><li>DAs relatively strong on subject matter but weak on key elements of extension (i.e. communication, facilitation) </li></ul><ul><li>No guidance on generalist or specialist DAs </li></ul><ul><li>Public sector domination (lack of institutional pluralism) </li></ul><ul><li>Crop dominated and yet the majority of farmers do not apply the recommended rates </li></ul>ETHIOPIA
  7. 7. PASTORAL EXTENSION <ul><li>Pastoralism is about NRM, people/ institutions and livestock. An extension system that fails to address these in a holistic manner is not a pastoral extension system </li></ul><ul><li>None of the extension models experimented in the past had pastoralism as a component </li></ul><ul><li>The livestock/rangeland development projects of the past did not have strong extension element. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>top-down; </li></ul></ul> ETHIOPIA
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>focused on infrastructure but no consideration for maintenance and sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paid no attention to the emergence of agro-pastoralism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient attention to drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No provision for private sector development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict was not given due attention </li></ul></ul>ETHIOPIA
  9. 9. NATIONAL RESPONSE <ul><li>Voluntary resettlement to facilitate provision of basic services including extension </li></ul><ul><li>There are several policy statements making direct reference to pastoral extension </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral/agro-pastoral Agricultural Extension System drafted (see below) </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral Extension Team within MoA </li></ul> ETHIOPIA
  10. 10. <ul><li>PCDP: a 15 year project - one of its objectives is to provide extension appropriate to pastoral areas </li></ul><ul><li>Parliamentary Standing Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralist Day pioneered by PFE </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral (PSNP) Taskforce </li></ul>ETHIOPIA
  11. 11. <ul><li>The draft Pastoral/agro-pastoral Participatory Agricultural Extension System (MoA) </li></ul><ul><li>An independent reviewer made several observations: </li></ul><ul><li>The use of “agricultural extension” is not appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>The level of stakeholder consultation not clear </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of emphasis on crop production. It does not consider the various pathways available to pastoral communities. </li></ul> ETHIOPIA
  12. 12. <ul><li>The challenges of conflict and cross-border trade not addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>DRM and climate change adaptation not covered </li></ul><ul><li>Some strong points: </li></ul><ul><li>the potential role of indigenous institutions and community leaders recognized </li></ul><ul><li>DAs to work with community groups and leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Packages prepared for (i) pastoral/agro-pastoral; (ii) mobile and sedentary; (iii) dry and wet season grazing areas </li></ul> ETHIOPIA
  13. 13. REGIONAL RESPONSES <ul><li>OROMIYA </li></ul><ul><li>BPR process has led to considerable restructuring </li></ul><ul><li>Six core processes dedicated to extension as opposed to one in most regions </li></ul><ul><li>Separate core processes for livestock and pastoralism </li></ul><ul><li>Extension located in three bureaus (i) Bureau of Agriculture; (ii) Livestock Production, Health and Marketing Agency; and (iii) Pastoral Development Commission </li></ul>ETHIOPIA
  14. 14. <ul><li>Public sector will continue to be the main provider of extension </li></ul><ul><li>Linking pastoralists and agro-pastoralists to agro-industry and markets </li></ul><ul><li>Conserving natural resources </li></ul> ETHIOPIA
  15. 15. <ul><li>SNNPR </li></ul><ul><li>Presently, agricultural extension model adopted in pastoral areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resources protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock and fishery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural women </li></ul></ul>ETHIOPIA
  16. 16. <ul><li>Interventions specific to pastoral areas are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced camels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided milk processing technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided improved forage seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed animal health posts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned animal health workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed ponds </li></ul></ul> ETHIOPIA
  17. 17. <ul><li>Future directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Number and professional mix of DAs to reflect pastoral realities </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from animal headcount to more productive livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Produce and store forage; improve handling of natural pasture; improve water supply; market facilities and information </li></ul><ul><li>Supply drugs at affordable prices on a timely basis </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce revolving funds using livestock as collateral </li></ul>ETHIOPIA
  18. 18. <ul><li>Proposed extesnion model - SNNPR </li></ul>ETHIOPIA Pastoral/agro-pastoral Extension system Water dev’t & utilisation extension Natural resources dev’t & protection extension Social services extension Land administration & utilisation extension Lowland agric. Dev’t extension Early warning extension Marketing extension Animal health extension Animal production extension Forage/pasture extension
  19. 19. <ul><li>Critic of Regional responses: </li></ul><ul><li>No mention of indigenous knowledge (people+ institutions) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple agency involvement may generate conflicting extension messages from different sources </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions are either new or have no previous experience in extension </li></ul><ul><li>Continued public sector dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on reducing livestock numbers. Pastoralists have a reason for keeping livestock! </li></ul> ETHIOPIA
  20. 20. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE <ul><li>Why is Ethiopia finding it difficult to put in place a PES? </li></ul><ul><li>There is no as such a strong/ replicable PES experience worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>A pluralism of models/approaches is used in most countries in Asia and Africa. </li></ul> ETHIOPIA
  21. 21. ETHIOPIA Country Extension approach/model Angola Rural development and extension programme; FFS Benin Participatory management; decentralised model; FFS B. Faso FFS Cameroon National agricultural extension; FFS Ethiopia SG-2000 approach (modified T&V); PADETS; FFS (by NGO); Research-Extension Council Ghana Unified extension system (modified T&V); pluralistic with NGOs and private companies as part of the national system; decentralised; FFS Kenya Pluralistic system; FFS ; DD driven ; group based extension Malawi Pluralistic ; DD driven ; decentralised; “one village one product”; FFS Mali Modified T&V; both private and pastoral services for cotton; FFS ; SG-2000 Mozambique Government-led pluralistic extension; FFS Nigeria FFS ; participatory; SG-2000 Rwanda Participatory; pluralistic ; specialised bottom up approach; FFS Tanzania FFS ; group-based; SG-2000 ; private extension; pluralism Uganda Pluralism ; National Agricultural Advisory Service Zambia Participatory extension approach; FFS
  22. 22. <ul><li>Key issues in designing PES: </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of pastoral people (IK is key) </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of appropriate services (inc. mobile) </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Access to all markets (local/international) not only for livestock but also for a range of products </li></ul><ul><li>Technical support which build on adaptive capacities of pastoralists </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Expand financial services </li></ul><ul><li>Meet basic needs of women and empower them </li></ul><ul><li>Involve relevant stakeholders </li></ul> ETHIOPIA
  23. 23. Thank you for your attention! 0911 177069 [email_address]