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Pastoral Extension Systems
 

Pastoral Extension Systems

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A synthesis of a series of national and regional consultations on the future of agricultural/ pastoral extension in Ethiopia by Amdissa Teshome.

A synthesis of a series of national and regional consultations on the future of agricultural/ pastoral extension in Ethiopia by Amdissa Teshome.

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    Pastoral Extension Systems Pastoral Extension Systems Presentation Transcript

    • Pastoral Extension System AMDISSA TESHOME INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE ETHIOPIAN ECONOMY ETHIOPIAN ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 21-23 JULY 2011 ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
    • ORIGIN OF THE PRESENTATION
      • This is not a research output in the conventional sense
      • It is a synthesis of a series of national and regional consultations on the future of agricultural/ pastoral extension
        • 2 National consultations
        • 4 Regional consultations
        • Paper presentations + group discussions + field visits to FTCs and FRGs
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA No. of participants National 70 Regional 129 Total 199 Papers Gov’t Non-gov Total National 2 4 6 Regional 8 5 13 Total 10 9 19
    • OBJECTIVE
      • To explain why past extension systems have failed to serve pastoral livelihoods
      • To present national and regional responses to the critics
      • To provide some international perspective on PES
      • To suggest some issues for consideration in the design of PES
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
    • BACKGROUND
      • Ethiopian agricultural extension system is 50-100 years old
      • It has gone through numerous models of extension (almost testing ground for imported models)
      • Overall transfer of technology (ToT) has been the dominant model
      • Participatory approaches by NGOs (small scale)
      ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
    • STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES
      • Strength
      • The largest public extension system in SSA
      • Close to 100% coverage in terms of DAs and FTCs
      • ATVETs for human capacity
      • Extension is now seen as critical to the agricultural transformation agenda
      • Continues to attract donor support
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
      • Weaknesses
      • No standard definition of extension
      • DAs relatively strong on subject matter but weak on key elements of extension (i.e. communication, facilitation)
      • No guidance on generalist or specialist DAs
      • Public sector domination (lack of institutional pluralism)
      • Crop dominated and yet the majority of farmers do not apply the recommended rates
      ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
    • PASTORAL EXTENSION
      • Pastoralism is about NRM, people/ institutions and livestock. An extension system that fails to address these in a holistic manner is not a pastoral extension system
      • None of the extension models experimented in the past had pastoralism as a component
      • The livestock/rangeland development projects of the past did not have strong extension element.
        • top-down;
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
        • focused on infrastructure but no consideration for maintenance and sustainability
        • paid no attention to the emergence of agro-pastoralism
        • Insufficient attention to drought
        • No provision for private sector development
        • Conflict was not given due attention
      ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
    • NATIONAL RESPONSE
      • Voluntary resettlement to facilitate provision of basic services including extension
      • There are several policy statements making direct reference to pastoral extension
      • Pastoral/agro-pastoral Agricultural Extension System drafted (see below)
      • Pastoral Extension Team within MoA
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
      • PCDP: a 15 year project - one of its objectives is to provide extension appropriate to pastoral areas
      • Parliamentary Standing Committee
      • Pastoralist Day pioneered by PFE
      • Pastoral (PSNP) Taskforce
      ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
      • The draft Pastoral/agro-pastoral Participatory Agricultural Extension System (MoA)
      • An independent reviewer made several observations:
      • The use of “agricultural extension” is not appropriate
      • The level of stakeholder consultation not clear
      • Lots of emphasis on crop production. It does not consider the various pathways available to pastoral communities.
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
      • The challenges of conflict and cross-border trade not addressed.
      • DRM and climate change adaptation not covered
      • Some strong points:
      • the potential role of indigenous institutions and community leaders recognized
      • DAs to work with community groups and leaders
      • Packages prepared for (i) pastoral/agro-pastoral; (ii) mobile and sedentary; (iii) dry and wet season grazing areas
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
    • REGIONAL RESPONSES
      • OROMIYA
      • BPR process has led to considerable restructuring
      • Six core processes dedicated to extension as opposed to one in most regions
      • Separate core processes for livestock and pastoralism
      • Extension located in three bureaus (i) Bureau of Agriculture; (ii) Livestock Production, Health and Marketing Agency; and (iii) Pastoral Development Commission
      ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
      • Public sector will continue to be the main provider of extension
      • Linking pastoralists and agro-pastoralists to agro-industry and markets
      • Conserving natural resources
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
      • SNNPR
      • Presently, agricultural extension model adopted in pastoral areas:
        • Crop production
        • Natural resources protection
        • Livestock and fishery
        • Rural women
      ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
      • Interventions specific to pastoral areas are:
        • Introduced camels
        • Provided milk processing technologies
        • Provided improved forage seeds
        • Constructed animal health posts
        • Assigned animal health workers
        • Constructed ponds
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
      • Future directions:
      • Number and professional mix of DAs to reflect pastoral realities
      • Shift from animal headcount to more productive livestock
      • Produce and store forage; improve handling of natural pasture; improve water supply; market facilities and information
      • Supply drugs at affordable prices on a timely basis
      • Introduce revolving funds using livestock as collateral
      ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
      • Proposed extesnion model - SNNPR
      ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org Pastoral/agro-pastoral Extension system Water dev’t & utilisation extension Natural resources dev’t & protection extension Social services extension Land administration & utilisation extension Lowland agric. Dev’t extension Early warning extension Marketing extension Animal health extension Animal production extension Forage/pasture extension
      • Critic of Regional responses:
      • No mention of indigenous knowledge (people+ institutions)
      • Multiple agency involvement may generate conflicting extension messages from different sources
      • Institutions are either new or have no previous experience in extension
      • Continued public sector dominance
      • Focusing on reducing livestock numbers. Pastoralists have a reason for keeping livestock!
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
    • INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
      • Why is Ethiopia finding it difficult to put in place a PES?
      • There is no as such a strong/ replicable PES experience worldwide.
      • A pluralism of models/approaches is used in most countries in Asia and Africa.
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
    • ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org Country Extension approach/model Angola Rural development and extension programme; FFS Benin Participatory management; decentralised model; FFS B. Faso FFS Cameroon National agricultural extension; FFS Ethiopia SG-2000 approach (modified T&V); PADETS; FFS (by NGO); Research-Extension Council Ghana Unified extension system (modified T&V); pluralistic with NGOs and private companies as part of the national system; decentralised; FFS Kenya Pluralistic system; FFS ; DD driven ; group based extension Malawi Pluralistic ; DD driven ; decentralised; “one village one product”; FFS Mali Modified T&V; both private and pastoral services for cotton; FFS ; SG-2000 Mozambique Government-led pluralistic extension; FFS Nigeria FFS ; participatory; SG-2000 Rwanda Participatory; pluralistic ; specialised bottom up approach; FFS Tanzania FFS ; group-based; SG-2000 ; private extension; pluralism Uganda Pluralism ; National Agricultural Advisory Service Zambia Participatory extension approach; FFS
      • Key issues in designing PES:
      • Participation of pastoral people (IK is key)
      • Provision of appropriate services (inc. mobile)
      • Livelihood diversification
      • Access to all markets (local/international) not only for livestock but also for a range of products
      • Technical support which build on adaptive capacities of pastoralists
      • Conflict avoidance
      • Expand financial services
      • Meet basic needs of women and empower them
      • Involve relevant stakeholders
      www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
    • Thank you for your attention! 0911 177069 [email_address]