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Pastoral Extension Systems

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A synthesis of a series of national and regional consultations on the future of agricultural/ pastoral extension in Ethiopia by Amdissa Teshome.

A synthesis of a series of national and regional consultations on the future of agricultural/ pastoral extension in Ethiopia by Amdissa Teshome.

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  • 1. Pastoral Extension System AMDISSA TESHOME INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE ETHIOPIAN ECONOMY ETHIOPIAN ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 21-23 JULY 2011 ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
  • 2. ORIGIN OF THE PRESENTATION
    • This is not a research output in the conventional sense
    • It is a synthesis of a series of national and regional consultations on the future of agricultural/ pastoral extension
      • 2 National consultations
      • 4 Regional consultations
      • Paper presentations + group discussions + field visits to FTCs and FRGs
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA No. of participants National 70 Regional 129 Total 199 Papers Gov’t Non-gov Total National 2 4 6 Regional 8 5 13 Total 10 9 19
  • 3. OBJECTIVE
    • To explain why past extension systems have failed to serve pastoral livelihoods
    • To present national and regional responses to the critics
    • To provide some international perspective on PES
    • To suggest some issues for consideration in the design of PES
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 4. BACKGROUND
    • Ethiopian agricultural extension system is 50-100 years old
    • It has gone through numerous models of extension (almost testing ground for imported models)
    • Overall transfer of technology (ToT) has been the dominant model
    • Participatory approaches by NGOs (small scale)
    ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
  • 5. STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES
    • Strength
    • The largest public extension system in SSA
    • Close to 100% coverage in terms of DAs and FTCs
    • ATVETs for human capacity
    • Extension is now seen as critical to the agricultural transformation agenda
    • Continues to attract donor support
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 6.
    • Weaknesses
    • No standard definition of extension
    • DAs relatively strong on subject matter but weak on key elements of extension (i.e. communication, facilitation)
    • No guidance on generalist or specialist DAs
    • Public sector domination (lack of institutional pluralism)
    • Crop dominated and yet the majority of farmers do not apply the recommended rates
    ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
  • 7. PASTORAL EXTENSION
    • Pastoralism is about NRM, people/ institutions and livestock. An extension system that fails to address these in a holistic manner is not a pastoral extension system
    • None of the extension models experimented in the past had pastoralism as a component
    • The livestock/rangeland development projects of the past did not have strong extension element.
      • top-down;
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 8.
      • focused on infrastructure but no consideration for maintenance and sustainability
      • paid no attention to the emergence of agro-pastoralism
      • Insufficient attention to drought
      • No provision for private sector development
      • Conflict was not given due attention
    ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
  • 9. NATIONAL RESPONSE
    • Voluntary resettlement to facilitate provision of basic services including extension
    • There are several policy statements making direct reference to pastoral extension
    • Pastoral/agro-pastoral Agricultural Extension System drafted (see below)
    • Pastoral Extension Team within MoA
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 10.
    • PCDP: a 15 year project - one of its objectives is to provide extension appropriate to pastoral areas
    • Parliamentary Standing Committee
    • Pastoralist Day pioneered by PFE
    • Pastoral (PSNP) Taskforce
    ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
  • 11.
    • The draft Pastoral/agro-pastoral Participatory Agricultural Extension System (MoA)
    • An independent reviewer made several observations:
    • The use of “agricultural extension” is not appropriate
    • The level of stakeholder consultation not clear
    • Lots of emphasis on crop production. It does not consider the various pathways available to pastoral communities.
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 12.
    • The challenges of conflict and cross-border trade not addressed.
    • DRM and climate change adaptation not covered
    • Some strong points:
    • the potential role of indigenous institutions and community leaders recognized
    • DAs to work with community groups and leaders
    • Packages prepared for (i) pastoral/agro-pastoral; (ii) mobile and sedentary; (iii) dry and wet season grazing areas
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 13. REGIONAL RESPONSES
    • OROMIYA
    • BPR process has led to considerable restructuring
    • Six core processes dedicated to extension as opposed to one in most regions
    • Separate core processes for livestock and pastoralism
    • Extension located in three bureaus (i) Bureau of Agriculture; (ii) Livestock Production, Health and Marketing Agency; and (iii) Pastoral Development Commission
    ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
  • 14.
    • Public sector will continue to be the main provider of extension
    • Linking pastoralists and agro-pastoralists to agro-industry and markets
    • Conserving natural resources
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 15.
    • SNNPR
    • Presently, agricultural extension model adopted in pastoral areas:
      • Crop production
      • Natural resources protection
      • Livestock and fishery
      • Rural women
    ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
  • 16.
    • Interventions specific to pastoral areas are:
      • Introduced camels
      • Provided milk processing technologies
      • Provided improved forage seeds
      • Constructed animal health posts
      • Assigned animal health workers
      • Constructed ponds
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 17.
    • Future directions:
    • Number and professional mix of DAs to reflect pastoral realities
    • Shift from animal headcount to more productive livestock
    • Produce and store forage; improve handling of natural pasture; improve water supply; market facilities and information
    • Supply drugs at affordable prices on a timely basis
    • Introduce revolving funds using livestock as collateral
    ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org
  • 18.
    • Proposed extesnion model - SNNPR
    ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org Pastoral/agro-pastoral Extension system Water dev’t & utilisation extension Natural resources dev’t & protection extension Social services extension Land administration & utilisation extension Lowland agric. Dev’t extension Early warning extension Marketing extension Animal health extension Animal production extension Forage/pasture extension
  • 19.
    • Critic of Regional responses:
    • No mention of indigenous knowledge (people+ institutions)
    • Multiple agency involvement may generate conflicting extension messages from different sources
    • Institutions are either new or have no previous experience in extension
    • Continued public sector dominance
    • Focusing on reducing livestock numbers. Pastoralists have a reason for keeping livestock!
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 20. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
    • Why is Ethiopia finding it difficult to put in place a PES?
    • There is no as such a strong/ replicable PES experience worldwide.
    • A pluralism of models/approaches is used in most countries in Asia and Africa.
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 21. ETHIOPIA www.future-agricultures.org Country Extension approach/model Angola Rural development and extension programme; FFS Benin Participatory management; decentralised model; FFS B. Faso FFS Cameroon National agricultural extension; FFS Ethiopia SG-2000 approach (modified T&V); PADETS; FFS (by NGO); Research-Extension Council Ghana Unified extension system (modified T&V); pluralistic with NGOs and private companies as part of the national system; decentralised; FFS Kenya Pluralistic system; FFS ; DD driven ; group based extension Malawi Pluralistic ; DD driven ; decentralised; “one village one product”; FFS Mali Modified T&V; both private and pastoral services for cotton; FFS ; SG-2000 Mozambique Government-led pluralistic extension; FFS Nigeria FFS ; participatory; SG-2000 Rwanda Participatory; pluralistic ; specialised bottom up approach; FFS Tanzania FFS ; group-based; SG-2000 ; private extension; pluralism Uganda Pluralism ; National Agricultural Advisory Service Zambia Participatory extension approach; FFS
  • 22.
    • Key issues in designing PES:
    • Participation of pastoral people (IK is key)
    • Provision of appropriate services (inc. mobile)
    • Livelihood diversification
    • Access to all markets (local/international) not only for livestock but also for a range of products
    • Technical support which build on adaptive capacities of pastoralists
    • Conflict avoidance
    • Expand financial services
    • Meet basic needs of women and empower them
    • Involve relevant stakeholders
    www.future-agricultures.org ETHIOPIA
  • 23. Thank you for your attention! 0911 177069 [email_address]

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