Hellenistic Period <ul><li>323 BCE – 146 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures are far more realistic – rather than ideal – portraits assume greater importance </li></ul><ul><li>Drama and emotion – often appear theatrical, excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Brought large scale into architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Actively exported Greek culture: politics, law, literature, philosophy, religion, and art. </li></ul>
Alexander the Great <ul><li>In 334 BCE, at the age of 20, Alexander launches the war that would lead to the greatest territorial conquests in history </li></ul><ul><li>Spread Greek and Hellenistic ideas over Persia, Asia Minor (Turkey), Egypt, Syria, India, Afganistan </li></ul><ul><li>Died at 33. </li></ul>
Corinthian pilasters on a Buddhist stupa of green schist at Mingora, in the Upper Swat Valley, Pakistan. 2 nd Century CE Gandhara Buddha. 1st-2nd century CE. Herculean depiction of Vajrapani (right), as the protector of the Buddha, 2nd century CE Gandhara, British Museum.
Three goddesses (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height approx. 4’ 5”. British Museum, London.
Head of an Amazon Greek Marble copy after the bronze original – created for the artistic contest for the town of Ephesus that took place in 440-430 BC, summoning all major Greek Artists – found in 1874
Lysippos, “Apoxyomenos” 330 BC Roman marble copy after a bronze orginal (Court sculptor to Alexander)
Dying Gaul. Roman marble copy after a bronze original from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230–220 BCE, approx. 3’ 1/2” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome.
Greek to Roman <ul><li>Roman era beginning 510 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic forms are displaced by realism that portrays children and the aging and ordinary citizens </li></ul>Relief portrait head of a man, c.1st Century bce, marble, 9 5/8" height. Double portrait, "Gratidia and Gratidius Libanus," c.1st Century bce, marble with traces of paint, 23 3/4" height.
<ul><li>For the souls departed. For the sweet Geminia Agathe Mater. My name was Mater, but I was never destined to become a mother. In fact I do not deny having lived only 5 years, 7 months and 22 days. During the time that I lived, I enjoyed myself and I was always loved by everyone. In fact, believe me, I had the face of a little boy, not of a girl; as only those who generated me know Agathe, of gentle temperament, of pleasing and noble appearance, with red hair, short on top and long behind. Now all of (you) offer me nice drinks and pray that the earth does not weigh heavily upon my remains. Do not despair too much about the remains of my little (body), Faventius, who raised me more than my parents and who loved only me. In fact, I have a mother and a father who preceded me some time ago and who never grieved over (my) destiny. I also have a sister by (my) mother Amoena, who is also saddened by my death. Please, everyone comfort my family, (reminding) them of the pleasant life (that I lived), reciting prayers so that (their) pain does not increase and their sadness does not exceed the limits. You who read, if you wish to know my whole name will know Geminia Agathe, which premature death stole and brought at a tender age to Tartaro. That is all, more cannot happen, this (is foreseen) for us. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Rome came of age during the Hellenistic Period. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans were great admirers of Greek achievements in the arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans made realistic portrayals of individuals as opposed to idealized portrayals of generic people. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman sculptors excelled in realism with ordinary citizens. </li></ul>
Roman Contributions to Art <ul><li>Architectural and Engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illusionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic/individual portraits </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>“ With the Greeks there’s always and aesthetic element. I prefer the virile realism of Rome which doesn’t embellish. The truthfulness of Roman art – it’s like their buildings, but all the more beautiful in their genuine simplicity.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pablo Picasso </li></ul></ul>
Portrait of Caracalla, ca. 211–217 CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Head of a Patrician, Roman, Republic period - 1 st century BC
Statue of an old market woman, Early Imperial, Julio-Claudian, 1st century A.D. Roman
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, 164-166 BCE, Bronze
Roman Coliseum – 50,000 person capacity Invesco Field – 50,000 person capacity (concerts)
"Nothing can last forever. Once the sun has shone brightly, it sets in the ocean. The moon wanes after it is full. Thus the ferocity of love often becomes a gentle breeze." ~written in Latin verse on the wall of a house in Pompeii
Fayum (or Fayoum) mummy portrait of a young woman with a gilded wreath Encaustic on wood Ancient Egypt, Roman Period A.D. 120-140