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Global Trends in Agricultural Extension


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Global Trends in Agricultural Extension

  1. 1. Global Trends in Agricultural Extension
  2. 2. Contents • What is Agricultural Extension? • Global Forces of Change • Broader role of extension • Globalization and Trade Liberalization • Modern Extension systems • Situation in Sri Lanka • Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Agricultural Extension A service or a system which assists farm people, through educational procedures, in improving farming methods and techniques, increase production efficiency and income, bettering their level of living and lifting the social & educational status of rural life(Maunder,1973) 3
  4. 4. Fact! The first modern agricultural advisory and instructional service was established in Ireland during the great potato famine(1847-1851) 4
  5. 5. Forces of Change • They could be political, technical, economic or social • They could be location specific, regional, national or global • The effects of these forces of change may be immediate, medium-term or long-term, and they may be direct or indirect • Must make internal and external adjustments, to keep functioning at the same or at higher level of efficiency 5
  6. 6. Forces of Change • Privatization • Commercialization and agri-business • Democratization and participation • Environment concerns • Disasters and emergencies • Information technology break-through • Rural poverty, hunger and vulnerability • Criticism of public extension services 6
  7. 7. Broader role of extension Some institutions have produced individual publications containing principles of reforms, which may be used as guidelines for reforming the national agricultural extension systems in the developing countries. The primary Institutions are: • Food & Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO) • The US Agency for International Development(USAID) • The World Bank(WB) • The International Fund for Agricultural development(IFAD) 7
  8. 8. Globalization • The concept of world becomes a single entity for living and business without restrictions on peoples’ movement • It paves the path to market liberalization • The liberalized markets are like a free-drive- away • Proper access will help farmers to have a better knowledge 8
  9. 9. Trade Liberalization • Trade liberalization of economies via the reduction or complete elimination of trade barriers has become the most popular economic policy of developed and developing countries today • With globalization of world economies all most all the counties in the world are actively involved with reducing trade barriers among their trade partners • Overally, liberalization has contributed significantly to accelerate economic growth and investment rates over the period of 1977-2007 in Sri Lanka 9
  10. 10. Modern Extension systems • Decentralized extension services • Fully or partially privatized extension • Pluralistic extension system • Client-orientation • Application of information technology • Participatory extension • Unified extension service 10
  11. 11. Decentralized extension services • Small units at national level to handle functions of policy, co-ordination and training and delegating the tasks of programmed planning, implementation and even fiscal authority to the provincial or district or municipality government • Involvement of NGO’s, community based groups, Farmer organizations 11
  12. 12. Fully or partially privatized extension • Outsourcing extension ! • The positive result is enhanced efficiency of staff, and the negative effect is the deprivation of small farmers from extension services due to their inability or unwillingness to pay • Benefits of this system has gained by Albania, England, Costa Rica, Argentina 12
  13. 13. Pluralistic extension system • Model of using both public and non-public institutions for delivering extension services to farming communities(succeeded in Bangladesh, Mali) • The main challenge in installing a proper pluralistic agricultural extension mechanism would be the co- ordination among various agencies, the absence of which has led, in some instances, to conflicting technical recommendations creating confusion among the farmers 13
  14. 14. Client-orientation • The extension clientele include subsistence farmers, commercial farmers, rural youth, women, rural farmers' families, and they all have different extension needs • Everybody’s needs have to be looked by the extension personnel(Succeeded in Malawi, Uganda and Zambia) • The underlying cause is increasing food needs in sprawling cities 14
  15. 15. Application of Information Technology • The advanced information technology is already making headway in the area of rural and agricultural development(in Egypt, Ireland, Italy) • The main challenge is how the powers of advanced information technology can be harnessed for the benefit of both extension agents and farmers without compromising the importance of human and unique local factors 15
  16. 16. Participatory extension • Powerful trend towards involving farmers in decision making • A methodology an extension delivery partnership mechanism is being worked out, involving stakeholders such as extension staff, farmers, NGOs, private sector, research, and academic institutions • Broad & differentiated communal involvement 16
  17. 17. Unified extension service • The creation or strengthening of multi- disciplinary subject-mater specialists • Countries succeeded- Uganda, Iran, Indonesia, the Philippines 17
  18. 18. Situation in Sri Lanka • With the beginning of the colonial regime, which drove towards the establishment of a centralized administration, the village based social system deteriorated • Priority given was the plantation sector • Later Division of Agriculture Extension was established under Department of Agriculture in 1963 and agriculture extension which was confined to rice only was extended to other crops as well • T & V system was established in 1980 by the assistance of the World Bank 18
  19. 19. Today…. • Cyber agricultural extension mechanism has been implemented in 2004 to deliver information which is affordable to rural farmers to satisfy their thirst for information, which is dynamic • The project established 45 Cyber Extension Units (CEU) at 45 Govijana Kendra offices (Agrarian Service Centres) during the period of 2004-2006 • Farmers are being educated through use of call centers(toll free on 1920),educational CD’s etc. 19
  20. 20. Conclusion • Agricultural extension is an essential part in technology transfer • Globalization and Trade liberalization are the two main forces to bring up modern agricultural extension systems • The trend was the birth of unique and a better, effective and supportive extension systems • Newest trends of extension now go ahead with collaborating with ICT • It should be dynamic, location &time specific, updated and facilitate change enabling a better educational & social status for rural community 20
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  22. 22. Reference • AEM5246 course material(OUSL) • Wijekoon, R.R.A. (2003). Concept paper presented to Sri Lanka council for Agricultural Research Policy • Riggs, M. (2003). Information Management for sustainable Agricultural Development in the Asian – Pacific Region - Proceeding of study meeting on ICT for Agricultural Extension • • • 22