Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Role of farm women in Indian
Agriculture
K.Venkatesha
MSc (Agri Extn) 1
“In order to awaken the people, it is the woman who have to
be awakened. Once she is on move, the family moves, the
villag...
According to Swaminathan,
“Some historians believe that it was woman who first
domesticated crop plants and thereby initia...
Objectives of the
seminar
To know the status of women
To assess the role of women in agriculture and allied activities
4
Status of women in
worldwide
Women and Poverty
70 % of the 1.2 billion people living in poverty are women
Women as Workers...
Cont…
Women are paid 30-40% less than men for comparable work
on an average.
60-80% of the food in most developing countri...
† Census 2001, women - 48.26 % of the total population
of India.
Among the total population
† literacy rate -54.16%
† Rura...
Cont…….
Women’s wage rates are, on an average
only 75 % of men’s wage rates
constitute only 25% of the family income
In no...
Source: ESCAP ,2001
Literacy rates of male and female in
2001(%)
9
Distribution of women workers in India
Year Total Female
Population
Million
Cultivators(%) Agricultural
Labourers (%)
Indu...
Women supervising the agricultural
operations performed by the labourers
11
Source: Percentage of the respondents’ relatio...
www.worldmapper.org
Women – Contribution and Status
Women contribute to two-thirds of the world’s work
hours, produce 50 per cent of the worl...
Share of Farm Women in Agricultural Operations
Activity Involvement (percentage )
Land preparation 32
Sowing and cleaning ...
Time and Energy Distribution by Rural
Women
Activities Duration
Hours/day
Energy
K.cal
Percentage
Domestic activities 7.55...
Why women in agriculture?
In order to eradicating poverty
To ensure food security
To increase their stake in agriculture
T...
Importance of women in agriculture
Woman is the moulder and builder of any nation’s destiny.
They play a significant role ...
Multi-Dimensional Role of Women
(i) Agriculture :Sowing,transplanting,weeding,irrigation fertilizer
application, plant pro...
Cont…
(iv) Horticulture: vegetable production, flower production, fruit
production.
(v)Sericulture: silk worm rearing, coc...
Tasks of women in
agriculTure
20
Women: The Major Work Force in Agriculture
Women at Work
Pesticide Spray Wheat harvest
Women's participation in the labour force
Women's roles in farming systems
Women in biological diversity
Women in the cash...
Problems in women participation are
1.Some of the farm women may inhibited to participate .
2.Most of the women were willi...
Cont..
5.While men attended farmer’s camps to learn about the use of
new implements, fertilizers, pesticide and crop rotat...
Suggestions to over come the above problems
The women in rural area should be educated .
To promote rural development prog...
Cont…
Several meetings and training of village women should be
conducted.
The training should be able to create awareness,...
Risks / work stress factors
Physical Stress / Risk of injury
Risk / Stress due to Vehicle / Machinery
Environmental Risks ...
Invisibility of Women’s Work
Non recognition of Women’s role in decision making.
Historical and Complex Causes reinforced ...
Recommendation
Correct the statistical invisibility of women’s work through
preparation of an account that should include ...
Cont…
Adequate attention is given to the educational process through
which women engage with the institutions in an inform...
Burden of family planning
Dangerous machinery
Unsafe electrical wiring and appliances
Livestock-transmitted diseases
...
Evolution of Policy
Gender mainstreaming started from the VI Five Year Plan
when ‘opportunities for independent employmen...
Women contribution to
agriculture
Responsible for household food and nutrition security.
90% of the hoeing and weeding in ...
Role of farm women in indian agriculture
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Role of farm women in indian agriculture

12,040 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • There are over 16,000 woodworking plans that comes with step-by-step instructions and detailed photos, Click here to take a look ♣♣♣ http://tinyurl.com/yy9yh8fu
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Get access to 16,000 woodworking plans, Download 50 FREE Plans... ★★★ http://tinyurl.com/yy9yh8fu
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Role of farm women in indian agriculture

  1. 1. Role of farm women in Indian Agriculture K.Venkatesha MSc (Agri Extn) 1
  2. 2. “In order to awaken the people, it is the woman who have to be awakened. Once she is on move, the family moves, the village moves, the nation moves” Pandit Jawaharalal Nehru 2
  3. 3. According to Swaminathan, “Some historians believe that it was woman who first domesticated crop plants and thereby initiated the art and science of farming. While men went out hunting in search of food, women started gathering seeds from the native flora and began cultivating those of interest from the point of view of food, feed, fodder, fibre and fuel.” 3
  4. 4. Objectives of the seminar To know the status of women To assess the role of women in agriculture and allied activities 4
  5. 5. Status of women in worldwide Women and Poverty 70 % of the 1.2 billion people living in poverty are women Women as Workers Women do more than 67% of the hours of work done in the world Earn only 10% of the world’s income And own only 1% of the world’s property The value of unremunerated work was estimated at about $16 billion, from which $11 billion represents the invisible contribution of women 5
  6. 6. Cont… Women are paid 30-40% less than men for comparable work on an average. 60-80% of the food in most developing countries is produced by women. Women hold between 10-20% managerial and administrative jobs. Women make up less than 5% of the world’s heads of state. 6
  7. 7. † Census 2001, women - 48.26 % of the total population of India. Among the total population † literacy rate -54.16% † Rural women literacy rate -31.6% † Urban women literacy rate-54.01% † Female share of non-agricultural wage employment is only 17% † Participation of women in the workforce is only 13.9% in the urban sector and Status of women in India 7
  8. 8. Cont……. Women’s wage rates are, on an average only 75 % of men’s wage rates constitute only 25% of the family income In no Indian State women and men earn equal wages in agriculture. Women occupy only 9% of parliamentary seats less than 4% seats in High Courts and Supreme Court less than 3% administrators and managers are women. 8
  9. 9. Source: ESCAP ,2001 Literacy rates of male and female in 2001(%) 9
  10. 10. Distribution of women workers in India Year Total Female Population Million Cultivators(%) Agricultural Labourers (%) Industry and Service (%) 1951 173,543 45.3 31.3 23.3 1961 212,467 55.7 23.9 20.4 1971 263,900 29.6 50.5 19.90 1981 321.357 33.2 46.2 20.6 1991 402,813 34.5 43.6 21.9 2001 494 million 36.5 43.5 20.0 Source : Registrar General of India, New Delhi, 2001 10
  11. 11. Women supervising the agricultural operations performed by the labourers 11 Source: Percentage of the respondents’ relationship to the farm work as per the research.
  12. 12. www.worldmapper.org
  13. 13. Women – Contribution and Status Women contribute to two-thirds of the world’s work hours, produce 50 per cent of the world’s food supplies Women work in fields, take care of families and manage household Despite the services rendered by women in the family and work place, they make up for nearly 70 per cent of the world’s poor and more than 65 per cent of the illiterates
  14. 14. Share of Farm Women in Agricultural Operations Activity Involvement (percentage ) Land preparation 32 Sowing and cleaning 80 Intercultural activities 86 Harvesting –reaping, winnowing, drying, cleaning and storage 84 14
  15. 15. Time and Energy Distribution by Rural Women Activities Duration Hours/day Energy K.cal Percentage Domestic activities 7.55 903 40.5 Agriculture allied activities 7.00 283 39.69 Sleep 6.50 283 12.76 Rest and recreation 2.15 155 6.97 Total 23.20 2255 100.0 Joshi (1999) 15
  16. 16. Why women in agriculture? In order to eradicating poverty To ensure food security To increase their stake in agriculture To increase economic contribution Ownership in land , livestock, etc. 16
  17. 17. Importance of women in agriculture Woman is the moulder and builder of any nation’s destiny. They play a significant role in any economy. They are regarded as the backbone of the rural scene. Most of the women perform various types of work for their livelihood and agriculture is considered as the biggest unorganized sector where large number of rural women take part actively. 17
  18. 18. Multi-Dimensional Role of Women (i) Agriculture :Sowing,transplanting,weeding,irrigation fertilizer application, plant protection, harvesting, winnowing, storing etc. (ii) Domestic: Cooking, child rearing, water collection, fuel wood gathering, household maintenance. (iii) Allied Activities: Cattle management, fodder collection milking etc. 18
  19. 19. Cont… (iv) Horticulture: vegetable production, flower production, fruit production. (v)Sericulture: silk worm rearing, cocoon production. 19
  20. 20. Tasks of women in agriculTure 20
  21. 21. Women: The Major Work Force in Agriculture
  22. 22. Women at Work Pesticide Spray Wheat harvest
  23. 23. Women's participation in the labour force Women's roles in farming systems Women in biological diversity Women in the cash crop sector Women in the post-harvest sector Employment and enterprises of women Heading households and household production 23 Tasks of women in Agriculture
  24. 24. Problems in women participation are 1.Some of the farm women may inhibited to participate . 2.Most of the women were willing to take up jobs, though they remained unemployed. 3.New jobs require a different kind of skills . 4.As wage-earning agriculture labourers, women suffer other kind of disadvantages also. 24
  25. 25. Cont.. 5.While men attended farmer’s camps to learn about the use of new implements, fertilizers, pesticide and crop rotation,etc. 6.Constraints on time and mobility by women’s dual domestic and agricultural roles . 7.Inefficient transfer of agricultural knowledge from husband to wife. 8.Lack of incentives to increase productivity . 25
  26. 26. Suggestions to over come the above problems The women in rural area should be educated . To promote rural development programmes . A good and democratic leadership should be created at the grass roots level. Women’s clubs and other organizations should be set up in the village. 26
  27. 27. Cont… Several meetings and training of village women should be conducted. The training should be able to create awareness, generate interest, motivate learning, impart knowledge, change attitude and generate skills. 27
  28. 28. Risks / work stress factors Physical Stress / Risk of injury Risk / Stress due to Vehicle / Machinery Environmental Risks / Stress 28
  29. 29. Invisibility of Women’s Work Non recognition of Women’s role in decision making. Historical and Complex Causes reinforced by social, cultural, political and religious practices and beliefs. No recognition of women in institutional work. 29
  30. 30. Recommendation Correct the statistical invisibility of women’s work through preparation of an account that should include in detail the work that women undertake. Policies and funds allocation need to take cognizance of this, and address women’s needs. 30
  31. 31. Cont… Adequate attention is given to the educational process through which women engage with the institutions in an informed and empowered way. Agricultural education be made gender sensitive and research, development, extension and services be engendered to give due recognition to the multiple role played by women agriculturists. 31
  32. 32. Burden of family planning Dangerous machinery Unsafe electrical wiring and appliances Livestock-transmitted diseases Exposure to toxic pesticides Reproductive hazards Stress Ergonomic adversaries Data gathered thus far point out that women with at least a secondary level education eventually give birth to one third to one half as many children as women with no formal education Health & safety issues of women in Agriculture
  33. 33. Evolution of Policy Gender mainstreaming started from the VI Five Year Plan when ‘opportunities for independent employment and income’ for women was recognized as a necessary condition for raising social status of women. Plan Focus 6th Five Year Plan Shift from Welfare to Developmental Issues 7th Five Year Plan Raising Economic and Social Status of Women 8th Five Year Plan Increased Emphasis on Economic Activities 9th Five Year Plan From Development to Empowerment 10th Five Year Plan From Women Alone to Gender Mainstreaming 11th Five Year plan Propose to Move Towards a Holistic Approach 33
  34. 34. Women contribution to agriculture Responsible for household food and nutrition security. 90% of the hoeing and weeding in food production. 80% of the work on food storage and transport. More than 90% of post harvest management including food processing, providing water and energy. More than 60% of harvesting and marketing. 34

×