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Livestock value chains

  1. 1. Constraints in the Livestock Value Chains in Africa; The Role of Science, Technology and Innovation Uganda| 18 June 2014 • Yona Baguma, PhD • Acting Deputy Director General Research Coordination, NARO Plot 11-13,Lugard Avenue, P.O. Box 295, Entebbe, Uganda t: +256 (414) 320512, 320341/2 m: +256 (772) 930185, f: +256 (414) 321070 Email:,
  2. 2. Outline of the Presentation • Nine critical facts • Economic significance of livestock in Africa • Mega challenges to livestock in Africa • The livestock value chains in Africa • The critical weak-links in the livestock value chains in Africa • An account of advances in STIs and applications in livestock VC in Africa • The critical gaps for Africa and smart interventions options • Perspectives on STIs in livestock in Africa • Critical commitments to improve livestock value chains in Africa
  3. 3. Nine Critical Facts 1. Severe hunger and poverty affects nearly 1 billion people around the world and 2 billion people in the developing world are malnourished. 2. Three-quarters of the world’s poorest people get their food and income from farming small plots of land. 3. Shifting demography – increasing urbanization and incomes - means less subsistence farming is imminent. 4. Emerging middle class that is increasingly aware of health and lifestyle – means quality of food will be more important than just quantity. 5. About 150 million of the rural poor in SSA are dependent of livestock to sustain their livelihood. 6. Their livestock are frequently weak or sick, resulting in reduced production of eggs and milk to eat or sell.
  4. 4. Nine Critical Facts 7. Many of these farmers are women, who are key to breaking the vicious cycle of malnutrition in their families. 8. Their success/failure determines whether they have enough to eat, are able to send their children to school, and can earn any money to save and lead healthy and productive lives. 9. Livestock are real stocks or securities at per with any stock traded on any market.
  5. 5. Economic Significance of Livestock in Africa Poor body condition due to poor feeding and diseases Women play a key role in livestock production
  6. 6. Mega Challenges to Livestock in Africa • Diseases and pests burden a) Several (rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, African swine fever, pasteurellosis, anthrax, blackleg, foot-and- mouth disease, brucellosis) and severe with far reaching impacts on productivity b) Poor support systems. A large proportion of the few trained vets are not engaged in the livestock sectors • Livestock productions systems in Africa a) Ruminant production mostly in the hot arid lands b) Inadequate knowledge and expertise of producers compounded with poor outreach c) Sub-optimal land tenure, fragmentation d) Unsustainable inheritance practices - usually land is subdivided among children – need a shift to securitization of land. The current land held by a house hold should be fixed. And indivisible. Joint ownership of land through shares? A
  7. 7. Mega Challenges Cont’d • Inadequate quantity and quality of feed and water • Poor and inefficient transportation methods for live animals • Poorly developed livestock post-slaughter sensitive value chains a) Lack of processing and preservation techniques b) Poor quality of finished products - packaging, standards, etc. • Institutional constraints: Capacity building/Policies/Regulations/Enforcement • Crosse cutting - social dynamics/cultural impacts on livestock production • Climate change and climate variability • Slow advances in livestock genetic improvements coupled with shortage of breeders with a vision • Untapped existing and novel markets and poor support marketing info a) Lack of business skills b) Equitable transactions - When a famer brings her perishable produce to a distant market, she is at the mercy of the buyer
  8. 8. 1. Animal health (disease control) 1. Breeding techniques 3. Animal housing, reduction of environmental load (minerals, energy, greenhouse gases, manure digestion) & milking winning techniques 4. Economy and farm management 5. Animal nutrition 6.Forage production (management of grassland and fodder crops) Chain manageme nt (product quality & safety) Processing industry Dairy cooperatives, slaughter houses, egg processors Supply industry Feed, veterinary services & genetic materials The Livestock Value Chain 7. Systems innovations
  9. 9. An Account of Advances in STIs and Applications in Livestock VC in AfricaAdvances in animal nutrition • Enabled utilisation of highly fibrous low-digestibility feeds which constitutes the major proportion of feeds to most ruminants under smallholder in Africa. a) balancing of nutrients for the growth of rumen microflora thereby facilitating efficient fermentative digestion, b) treatment with alkali or by manipulating the balance of organisms in the rumen c) genetic manipulation of rumen micro-organisms, currently acknowledged as potentially the most powerful tool for enhancing the rate and extent of digestion of low quality feeds • Recent data from human studies indicate strong influence interaction between food and gut microbiome. No doubt that such interaction exists in livestock – and have impact on productivity and quality of produce. • Recent data has indicated presence of viruses in the rumen of sheep and goats (Agaba 2013, Personal Communication). This presents unlimited possibilities to manipulate rumen environment among other things.
  10. 10. An Account of Advances in STIs and Applications in Livestock VC in AfricaAdvances in animal nutrition Cont’d • Exploiting conventional plant breeding in reducing, and, in some cases, eliminating anti-nutritive factors, which severely impacts on non-ruminants • Technologies for utilization of crop residues as animal feeds; the use of fungi (like mushrooms) to pre digest fibrous materials before feeding, homemade mineral blocks to improve nutritive value, use of bentonite clays to reduce the risks of aflatoxins. • Developed and disseminated forages tolerant to drought and major diseases. 22 clones of Napier grass tolerance to Napier stunt and smut disease have been identified and deployed in Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi • Rehabilitation of degraded grazing lands, through termite control,
  11. 11. An Account of Advances in STIs and Applications in Livestock VC in AfricaAdvances in animal health • Untangled molecular mechanisms of microbial virulence and discovery of novel vaccines and other therapeutic agents for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases • Improved management of pathogenic diseases enabled by knowledge on pathogenic genome sequences coupled untangled pathogen x host interactions • Exploiting emerging DNA science of genomics - identification of new pathogens (new blue tongue like virus is Europe;), or identify new hosts for known pathogens (eg Ndumu virus in pigs using high through put genome sequencing platforms (Charles Masembe 2013), or deeper characterization of local strains variants that may be target for expanded vaccine development. • Novel vaccine approaches facilitated by synthetic biology, where by entire genomes of organisms such as Mycoplasm mycoides is made artificially
  12. 12. An Account of Advances in STIs and Applications in Livestock VC in Africa Advances in animal health - Eradication of Rinderpest from Africa Rinderpest a viral disease of ruminants - at one point killed 90% of all cattle in Africa (circa 1880 and continued to threaten herds with mortalities of 5 – 50% per outbreak, threatening trade and livelihoods. The Eradication of rinderpest typifies the Science, Vaccine development and delivery, Disease surveillance, Policy, Inter governmental cooperation that is needed to tackle profound challenges in the Livestock value chains. Lessons from the program can and should be applied to other diseases – e.g. Newcastle (chicken), PPR (sheep and goats), African Swine fever (pigs) A scene from 1880 outbreak of Rinderpest
  13. 13. The Eradica on of   Rinderpest fr om  Af ic a A G r eat  Mi l es tone AFRICAN UNION INTERAFRICAN BUREAU FOR ANIMAL RESOURCES Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources(AU-IBAR) essPark estlandsRoad 4 (20) 3674 000 3674 341 / 3674 342 The Eradict from Africa A Great Milestone Underlying Key STI Messages • The key Science is on immune responses of livestock, and epidemiology and pattern of the diseases. • The key Technologies are - diagnostics and thermal stable vaccines (the latter allowed workers to deliver vaccines in remote hostile environment without worrying about ice. • The Innovations will have to be in the
  14. 14. An Account of Advances in STIs and Applications in Livestock VC in AfricaMarketing Issues • What use is production if the market doesn't exist? What do you do if the market is not there or is weak? From the livestock revolution and current demographic trends, its almost obvious that demand for livestock exists and is growing. But demand is different from a Market. The market is where the demand and supply are matched and consummated. If the market is weak, both the demand and supply remain unsatisfied. • Science of food processing – new methods of delivery that take into account the nature of the market. What harvest technologies are needed to bring livestock products to market at affordable prices for the urban poor. Should we invest in mobile slaughter houses for small ruminants? No need to transport live animals - -loss of value in transportation, animal welfare issues, and the costs! What would be needed in such a slaughter house? What configuration? • What would be the right time to harvest livestock - what age and what would be the impact on the value chain and market? Younger animals
  15. 15. An Account of Advances in STIs and Applications in Livestock VC in AfricaMarketing Issues Cont’d • Can we use new means of tenderization of meat? Novel enzymes other than papain? (anecdotal observation, animals infected with tryps (early stage, first parasitemia) have tender meat? Is this true? A possible explanation is that tryps produce a lot of papain like (e.g. congopain) enzymes into the plasma. • What innovations are needed to deliver eggs, and milk to the markets (urban market, rural production) - what sanitation issues surround eggs- - salmonella? What new products - -yourghut, milky drinks to replace or compete with coca cola! Is there a market for eggshells as a source of calcium – for people? • New recipes to expand the role of livestock in nutrition - - especially new or unconventional livestock? • Information arena – especially for price discovery – need a trading platform akin to the stock exchange., connected markets. GIS systems to map all cattle markets and follow-throughs. • Biotechnologies for rapid diagnosis in case of movement permits/cross-
  16. 16. The Critical Gaps for Africa and Smart Possible Interventions Productivity Gap: • More than 90% of all African farms are of low productivity potential. The are efficient only when under optimal natural conditions with minimum inputs and are not suited to modern productions systems. This calls for systematic upgrade. Efficiency Gap: • More than 90 percent of improved livestock breeds perform sub optimally on farm. For example the Mpwapwa Red cattle developed as a synthetic dairy breed in Tanzania can produce up to 2000Kg of milk per lactation. But on farm efficiency is far less than 50%. This calls for improvement in management practices on farm. Logistics Gap in supply chain: • All livestock products are perishable (meat, milk, eggs) resulting in poor utilization of remotely produce. Innovations in the supply chain - refrigerated trucks extend shelf life of milk, meat - bring more into the market. Can reduce long distance transport of live animals, reduce cost of meat culminating into increased urban consumption. Biotechnology Gap: • Supply of improved genetics requires use of artificial insemination (AI). AI
  17. 17. The Critical Gaps for Africa and Smart Possible Interventions Policy Gap: • Few African countries have functional or effective and modern livestock policies. Comprehensive review of livestock policies (e.g. livestock breeding policies) that spur innovations in livestock sector. Investment Gap: • By comparison to Crop agriculture, Livestock sector receives a small fraction of investment in research, development or recurrent expenditure. 15% sustained increase in budgetary allocation for 10 years. Science Gap: • Livestock production is still dominated by disease . Some such as Rinderpest have been eradicated. Others such as Newcastle disease of chickens can be suppressed by vaccination. Research needed to develop – vaccines and delivery systems that enable rapid deployment. Research needed to combat infestations with worms and ectoparasites. Information Gap: • A wealth of information is locked up in cabinets, heads what is needed is innovations in digital systems that put actionable information in people hands
  18. 18. Integrated data and information systems that seamlessly connects all stake holders to deliver actionable information to each stakeholder has potential to revolutionize livestock value chain. Connected agents make informed decisions Data analysis engines Analysts, agents etc Information and Data Gap Make data work for farmers
  19. 19. 70% of Africans are below age 30 We must be innovative to engage the young in livestock value chains. Management, modern production skills Generational Gap in Livestock Sector
  20. 20. Expand up graduate education, Innovate in research and capacity development e.g. rapid programs Research platforms – e.g. BecA In the 10 years between 2002 and 2012, Uganda’s livestock population has almost doubled. (FAO 2014) This is a direct consequence of lack of human capital needed to increase the productivity or efficiency per animal 0 5,000,000 10,000,000 15,000,000 20,000,000 25,000,000 30,000,000 35,000,000 40,000,000 Cattle Chickens Goats Pigs Sheep 2002 2012 Africa has 2 billion chickens, and one billion cattle and goats. How many PhD level livestock Scientists? Africa spend less than 1% of its GDP on research, and livestock research and development receives an even smaller fraction of the investment. Scientists, Science, Innovation Skills Gap for Livestock Development Innovate in the research and capacity development arena. Expand graduate programs at universities, pool resources to conduct research (e.g. Biosciences platforms such as BecA-ILRi hub shared facility); develop rapid training modules e.g. animal breeding academies
  21. 21. Future Perspectives On the production side • Health (vaccines: engineering, surveillance for pathogen strains) • Feeds and feeding - new feeds (especially monogastrics), more feeds, stress resistant forages. • Product quality and assurance (meat, milk, eggs); age at slaughter (what would be the impact of a policy that limits the maximum age at slaughter, better meat, higher profits? increase profitability? • Incentives for productive engagement of youth in livestock - what factors keep young out of livestock farming/sector. • Genetics - continue to improve the genetics of adapted productive genotypes - quick results in chickens,
  22. 22. Future Perspectives Cont’d On the market/policy/cross cutting • The future of the livestock market is not clear. We know the demand will grow but what kind of demand (poultry, pig? or ruminant?) - What interventions need to be put in place when and where to max the returns. • Development of information systems for SMART agriculture (agricultural informatics) • Transport systems for livestock products • Integrating ICT in livestock production
  23. 23. Future Perspectives Cont’d Human and environment health • What kind of health impact will livestock have? How to maximise the benefits on human health? • Scanning potential animals associated pathogens - to make livestock safer. Is all livestock safe? • Diminish stocking density -or damaging impacts of greenhouse gas emission.
  24. 24. Critical Commitments Towards Improving Livestock Value Chains in Africa • Analyze the livestock value chains using a variety of tools and steps, identifying constraints & opportunities for innovation. Including research on intra Africa trade barriers • Register households as business entities rather than as filial units to inculcate business sense – what tax incentives would help this cultural transition? • Build critical engagement among and between chain actors and between chain actors and chain supporters • Establish a pan-African Surveillance Livestock Network • Elaborate and design an effective chain development strategy and develop the related action plan for transformation of the livestock sub-sector • Develop of a comprehensive educational and training plan to support critical activities
  25. 25. Thank you! Contributors: Drs. Jolly Kabiriizi, Emmanuel Zziwa and Morris Agaba