Community-based Breeding Programs for Adapted Sheep Breeds in Ethiopia Mirkena, T., Duguma, G.,  Haile, A., Tibbo, M., Oke...
Ethiopia <ul><li>Human population:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>73.9 million  (2.6%/yr) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Area:  1,221,480 ...
Introduction… <ul><li>Limitations to genetic improvement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No breeding policy  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Objectives <ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve productivity and income of smallholder and pastoral sheep pro...
Study areas, breeds and communities <ul><li>Four location in different States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afar, Bonga, Horro, M...
Afar <ul><li>Altitude: 565-1542 m.a.s.l </li></ul><ul><li>Hot to warm arid plains </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral/agro-pastoral...
Bonga <ul><li>Altitude:1070-3323 m.a.s.l </li></ul><ul><li>Wet, humid  </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed crop-livestock </li></ul><u...
Horro <ul><li>Altitude: 1450-3210 m.a.s.l </li></ul><ul><li>Wet, humid </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed crop-livestock </li></ul><u...
Menz <ul><li>Altitude:2500-3563m.a.s.l </li></ul><ul><li>Tepid, cool highland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy ecological degra...
Steps to design & implement community based BP
11/21/11 Afar Bonga Horro Menz Scheme 2 Scheme 1
Implementation <ul><li>June – July, 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base line information: flock census – live weight, dentitio...
Young rams selection procedures <ul><li>Performance records: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weight (birth, weaning, 6 and 12 months...
Young rams selection…  Round of selection Afar Bonga Horro Menz 1&2 25 29 27 50 Grand total 3 16 24 16 26 4 not done 33 25...
PRELIMINARY RESULTS parameter Bonga Horro Mehal Meda Molale Sex N Mean± SD N Mean± SD N Mean± SD N Mean± SD BWt (kg) M 521...
Preliminary results… trends (male lambs) Parameter Year Horro (Lakku) Bonga (Boqa) Menz (Molale) N Mean± SD N Mean± SD N M...
Preliminary results… trends (female lambs) Parameter Year Horro (Lakku) Bonga (Boqa) Menz (Molale) N Mean± SD N Mean± SD N...
Related interventions… <ul><li>Animal health: vaccination and treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Forage development – forage seed...
Challenges <ul><li>Illiteracy and lack of awareness  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. ear tagging problem in Afar & Bonga </li><...
Challenges… <ul><li>Early disposal of fast growing lambs </li></ul><ul><li>Record quality </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up by r...
Challenges … <ul><li>Problems associated with pasture lands : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No protection/ improvement activit...
Future plans Sheep Meat Value Chain (CRP3.7)
<ul><li>Proposal submitted to ADA for 2 nd  phase funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization and out-scaling of community ...
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Community-based breeding programs for adapted sheep breeds in Ethiopia

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Presented by Mirkena, T., Duguma, G., Haile, A., Tibbo, M., Okeyo, A.M., Rischkowsky, B. Wurzinger, M. and Sölkner, J. at the ILRI-EIAR-SLU Workshop on Sharing Research Results on Trypanotolerance in Indigenous Cattle Breeds and Experiences of Community Based Breed Improvement of Indigenous Sheep in Ethiopia—A Road Map for Implementation and Future R4D, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 15-16 November 2011.

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Community-based breeding programs for adapted sheep breeds in Ethiopia

  1. 1. Community-based Breeding Programs for Adapted Sheep Breeds in Ethiopia Mirkena, T., Duguma, G., Haile, A., Tibbo, M., Okeyo, A.M., Rischkowsky, B. Wurzinger, M., Sölkner, J. ILRI-EIAR-SLU Workshop on Sharing Research Results on Trypanotolerance in Indigenous Cattle Breeds and Experiences of Community Based Breed Improvement of Indigenous Sheep in Ethiopia—A Road Map for Implementation and Future R4D Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 15-16 November 2011
  2. 2. Ethiopia <ul><li>Human population: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>73.9 million (2.6%/yr) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Area: 1,221,480 km 2 (density ~ 71 persons/km 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>AEZs: ~18 major types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly contrasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by altitude (126 m.b.s.l. to 4620 m.a.s.l.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Huge biodiversity </li></ul>Species Million heads Breeds Cattle 47.57 26 Sheep 26.12 9 Goats 21.71 12
  3. 3. Introduction… <ul><li>Limitations to genetic improvement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No breeding policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No working breeding plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small flock size per household </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility (pastoral areas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illiteracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of identification & recording schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ill-functioning public institutions </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve productivity and income of smallholder and pastoral sheep producers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify sheep breeding objective traits of smallholder farmers and pastoralists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To model alternative breeding plans (schemes) for four indigenous sheep breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To facilitate implementation of selected schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop methodological framework for community-based breeding programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify constraints to marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess impact of genetic improvement on the environment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Study areas, breeds and communities <ul><li>Four location in different States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afar, Bonga, Horro, Menz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 indigenous sheep breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 communities per location each with 60 households </li></ul></ul>1 2 3 4 1 = Afar 2 = Bonga 3 = Horro 4 = Menz
  6. 6. Afar <ul><li>Altitude: 565-1542 m.a.s.l </li></ul><ul><li>Hot to warm arid plains </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral/agro-pastoral </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large herd/flock sizes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Species mix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communal rangelands – no private land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal feed shortage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled breeding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Utility: Milk, meat </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bonga <ul><li>Altitude:1070-3323 m.a.s.l </li></ul><ul><li>Wet, humid </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed crop-livestock </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals mostly tethered (private grazing land; no communal grazing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding somewhat controlled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ample feed resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Utility: Meat </li></ul>
  8. 8. Horro <ul><li>Altitude: 1450-3210 m.a.s.l </li></ul><ul><li>Wet, humid </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed crop-livestock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ample feed (if crop residues & aftermaths are utilized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grazing area: communal + private </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utility: meat </li></ul>
  9. 9. Menz <ul><li>Altitude:2500-3563m.a.s.l </li></ul><ul><li>Tepid, cool highland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy ecological degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift in production system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheep-barley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utility: meat, wool </li></ul>
  10. 10. Steps to design & implement community based BP
  11. 11. 11/21/11 Afar Bonga Horro Menz Scheme 2 Scheme 1
  12. 12. Implementation <ul><li>June – July, 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base line information: flock census – live weight, dentition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal identification: 7097 animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of recording formats & record books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enumerators & household training </li></ul></ul>Number of initial registration & births (up to August 2011) Afar Bonga Horro Menz Total Initial 1364 1074 2248 2411 7097 Births ?? 957 2574 2805 6336 Total 1364+ 2031 4822 5216 13433
  13. 13. Young rams selection procedures <ul><li>Performance records: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weight (birth, weaning, 6 and 12 months) – all breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>milk yield (Afar), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wool yield (Menz) by households and technicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number weaned (all breeds); twinning (Bonga & Horro) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ram selection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>candidates are ranked based recorded information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical soundness (tail type, coat color, horns, conformation and general appearance) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A research team and a community committee jointly screen the candidates </li></ul>
  14. 14. Young rams selection… Round of selection Afar Bonga Horro Menz 1&2 25 29 27 50 Grand total 3 16 24 16 26 4 not done 33 25 42 5 - - 18 - Total 41 86 86 118 331
  15. 15. PRELIMINARY RESULTS parameter Bonga Horro Mehal Meda Molale Sex N Mean± SD N Mean± SD N Mean± SD N Mean± SD BWt (kg) M 521 3.60±0.75 899 3.16±1.02 821 2.26±0.45 506 2.34±0.51 F 452 3.45±0.75 901 3.13±1.01 835 2.20±0.44 423 2.33±0.52 3Wt (kg) M 295 16.48±3.39 474 13.15±2.55 679 11.73±2.42 483 9.09±2.09 F 265 15.14±3.30 469 12.81±2.55 668 11.46±2.34 400 9.10±2.07 6Wt (kg) M 61 21.45±3.92 122 18.34±2.97 576 14.25±3.45 400 11.82±2.46 F 76 19.73±4.47 102 16.81±2.64 581 13.79±3.09 324 11.61±2.32 12Wt (kg) M - - - - 211 19.21±2.20 197 15.64±2.32 F - - - - 581 19.13±2.46 169 15.23±2.28 PreADG (g) M 284 140±40 405 107±27 679 106±29 482 74±23 F 247 128±38 392 101±26 666 103±28 399 75±24 PostADG (g) M 56 30±278 110 67±51 576 26±25 399 30±25 F 65 6±380 87 57±40 581 26±25 321 27±22 6GFW (g) M - - - - 70 881±427 - - F - - - - 64 717±481 - - LI (days) - 197 273±72 490 260±61 532 265±71 382 262±65
  16. 16. Preliminary results… trends (male lambs) Parameter Year Horro (Lakku) Bonga (Boqa) Menz (Molale) N Mean± SD N Mean± SD N Mean± SD 3Wt (kg) 2009 66 14.13±2.35 82 16.43±3.88 159 9.53±2.23 2010 187 12.19±2.16 82 16.67±2.94 318 8.91±2.03 2011 32 15.51±1.82 15 16.40±4.64 11 9.25± 6Wt (kg) 2009 30 19.43±2.96 28 23.21± 143 11.6±2.53 2010 59 18.16±2.06 19 20.21± 263 11.97±2.15 2011 - - - 12Wt (kg) 2009 - - 114 15.21±2.35 2010 - - 85 16.21±2.10 2011 - - -
  17. 17. Preliminary results… trends (female lambs) Parameter Year Horro (Lakku) Bonga (Boqa) Menz (Molale) N Mean± SD N Mean± SD N Mean± SD 3Wt (kg) 2009 59 13.84±2.21 81 14.55±3.97 134 9.60±2.21 2010 203 12.13±2.20 93 15.91±2.60 264 8.91±1.96 2011 43 15.95±1.81 8 17.37±3.11 5 6.94±1.39 6Wt (kg) 2009 25 15.20±2.73 36 19.81±4.88 116 11.40±2.38 2010 47 16.92±1.73 22 21.36±2.98 211 11.76±2.28 2011 - - - - - - 12Wt (kg) 2009 - - - - 102 14.82±2.39 2010 - - - - 69 15.91±1.95 2011 - - - - - -
  18. 18. Related interventions… <ul><li>Animal health: vaccination and treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Forage development – forage seeds and seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers training in animal health & feed management </li></ul><ul><li>Breeders association/cooperatives formation </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of seedlings of high-value highland fruits to interested members (Horro & Menz) </li></ul><ul><li>Culled rams fattening demo (Menz + Horro) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Challenges <ul><li>Illiteracy and lack of awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. ear tagging problem in Afar & Bonga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afar: traditional animal identification (branding of unique pattern) that is specific to each clan and households within a clan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bonga: there was very limited interaction with research system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Challenges… <ul><li>Early disposal of fast growing lambs </li></ul><ul><li>Record quality </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up by research teams </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback mechanisms to farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep holding/weighing structures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holding yards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>portable tripods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Challenges … <ul><li>Problems associated with pasture lands : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No protection/ improvement activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dwindling from time to time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invaded by Prosopis juliflora in Afar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recurrent droughts - in Afar and Menz </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility of pastoral flocks making monitoring and recording unachievable </li></ul>
  22. 22. Future plans Sheep Meat Value Chain (CRP3.7)
  23. 23. <ul><li>Proposal submitted to ADA for 2 nd phase funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization and out-scaling of community based breeding programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of socio-economic feasibility of community based breeding programs (CBBP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and assess, institutional arrangements and organizational capacities that are required to sustain CBBP, and enhance/promote the desirable ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation the established community based breeding programs against alternative approaches </li></ul></ul>FUTURE PLANS…
  24. 24. Thank You!!

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