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Chapter 4 learning cycle


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  • 1. Chapter 4. Teaching Science for Understanding: The 5-E Model of Instruction SCED 570 Fall 2011
  • 2. Goal of Science Education
  • 3. Types of instruction
    • Number of instructional approaches including:
      • Textbook-based approach
      • Direct instruction
      • Guided discovery
      • Inquiry approach
    • Inquiry methods of teaching science are designed to meet 3 main goals of science instruction with students.
  • 4. 5 Essential Features of Inquiry (pp. 88-90)
    • Learners are engages in scientifically oriented questions.
    • Learners give priority to evidence as they plan and conduct investigations.
    • Learners connect evidence and scientific knowledge in generating explanations.
    • Learners apply their knowledge to new scientific problems.
    • Learners communicate with others about procedures, evidence, and explanation.
  • 5. Learning Cycle
    • Developed by Robert Karplus and the SCIS program.
    • Constructivist approach
    • Generally has three phases:
      • Phase I - Discovery (exploration, observation)
      • Phase II – Concept Invention (generalization)
      • Phase III - Concept Application (application)
    • Has been expanded to five phases by BSCS:
      • Engaging, Exploring, Explaining, Elaborating, Evaluating
      • frequently called the 5-E model
  • 6. Five Phases of the 5-E Model
    • Engage
    • Explore
    • Explain
    • Elaborate
    • Evaluate
    Different phases of the model parallel the five tasks of inquiry identified by the NSES.
  • 7. 1. Engage
    • Introduce the topic of study by creating interest and generating curiosity in the learner.
    • Raise questions and elicit responses from students.
    • Set the stage for learning.
    • Identity the prior conceptions
    • E.g. discrepant events
  • 8. 2. Explore
    • Students explore materials freely, leading to questioning, hypothesizing, forming tentative ideas.
    • Students look for patterns through their own involvement with provided materials.
    • New materials, ideas, and relationships are introduced with a minimum of teacher guidance.
  • 9. 2. Explore - continued
    • The goal is to allow students to apply previous knowledge & experiences, feed their interest and stimulate curiosity.
    • Also allows the teacher to pre-assess student knowledge.
    • Opportunity for students to test predictions and hypotheses and/or form new ones, try alternatives and discuss them with peers, record observations and ideas and suspend judgment .
  • 10. 3. Explanation
    • Students are guided to understand concepts and principles that help them answer questions and address preconceptions - encourage students to explain concepts in their own words.
    • Teachers ask for evidence and clarification.
    • Teachers introduce the concepts and link to the pattern which was seen in the exploration phase.
    • Terms may be introduced and concepts clarified with discussion, video, lecture, etc.
  • 11. 4. Elaboration
    • Students think of ways to apply concepts learned to new situations.
    • Students find examples and non-examples of the concept application.
    • The goal is to have students generalize the application of their knowledge – to try out their newly learned ideas by transferring what they have learned to new situations.
    • Spirals back to exploration phase as new questions and ideas are generated.
  • 12. 5. Evaluation
    • Ongoing throughout learning experience.
    • Teacher observes students' knowledge and/or skills, application of new concepts and changes in thinking.
    • Teacher asks open-ended questions and look for answers that use observation, evidence, and previously accepted explanations.
  • 13. 5. Evaluation On On On On Off Off Off Off Off
  • 14. Learning Cycle & 5 E Model
    • Can result in disequilibrium and provides opportunities for students to confront preconceptions.
    • Provide students opportunities to argue and debate their ideas.
    • Illuminates alternative conceptions.
    • Provides opportunity to construct more appropriate conceptions.
  • 15. Types of instruction
    • Number of instructional approaches including:
      • Textbook-based approach
      • Direct instruction
      • Guided discovery
      • Inquiry approach
      • => Advantages and disadvantages?
  • 16. Selecting Instructional Approaches
    • There is no one best way to teach all science concepts to all children all the time!
    • Need to use a variety of teaching techniques.
    • “ Just as inquiry has many different facets, so teachers need to use many different strategies to develop the understandings and abilities described in the Standards ” (NRC, 1996, P. 2)
  • 17. Teacher Helps with 5E