Chapter 4 learning cycle


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Chapter 4 learning cycle

  1. 1. Chapter 4. Teaching Science for Understanding: The 5-E Model of Instruction SCED 570 Fall 2011
  2. 2. Goal of Science Education
  3. 3. Types of instruction <ul><li>Number of instructional approaches including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbook-based approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiry approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inquiry methods of teaching science are designed to meet 3 main goals of science instruction with students. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 5 Essential Features of Inquiry (pp. 88-90) <ul><li>Learners are engages in scientifically oriented questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners give priority to evidence as they plan and conduct investigations. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners connect evidence and scientific knowledge in generating explanations. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners apply their knowledge to new scientific problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners communicate with others about procedures, evidence, and explanation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Learning Cycle <ul><li>Developed by Robert Karplus and the SCIS program. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist approach </li></ul><ul><li>Generally has three phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase I - Discovery (exploration, observation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase II – Concept Invention (generalization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase III - Concept Application (application) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has been expanded to five phases by BSCS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging, Exploring, Explaining, Elaborating, Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frequently called the 5-E model </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Five Phases of the 5-E Model <ul><li>Engage </li></ul><ul><li>Explore </li></ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul>Different phases of the model parallel the five tasks of inquiry identified by the NSES.
  7. 7. 1. Engage <ul><li>Introduce the topic of study by creating interest and generating curiosity in the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Raise questions and elicit responses from students. </li></ul><ul><li>Set the stage for learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity the prior conceptions </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. discrepant events </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Explore <ul><li>Students explore materials freely, leading to questioning, hypothesizing, forming tentative ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Students look for patterns through their own involvement with provided materials. </li></ul><ul><li>New materials, ideas, and relationships are introduced with a minimum of teacher guidance. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2. Explore - continued <ul><li>The goal is to allow students to apply previous knowledge & experiences, feed their interest and stimulate curiosity. </li></ul><ul><li>Also allows the teacher to pre-assess student knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for students to test predictions and hypotheses and/or form new ones, try alternatives and discuss them with peers, record observations and ideas and suspend judgment . </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3. Explanation <ul><li>Students are guided to understand concepts and principles that help them answer questions and address preconceptions - encourage students to explain concepts in their own words. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers ask for evidence and clarification. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers introduce the concepts and link to the pattern which was seen in the exploration phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Terms may be introduced and concepts clarified with discussion, video, lecture, etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 4. Elaboration <ul><li>Students think of ways to apply concepts learned to new situations. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Students find examples and non-examples of the concept application. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to have students generalize the application of their knowledge – to try out their newly learned ideas by transferring what they have learned to new situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Spirals back to exploration phase as new questions and ideas are generated. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 5. Evaluation <ul><li>Ongoing throughout learning experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher observes students' knowledge and/or skills, application of new concepts and changes in thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher asks open-ended questions and look for answers that use observation, evidence, and previously accepted explanations. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 5. Evaluation On On On On Off Off Off Off Off
  14. 14. Learning Cycle & 5 E Model <ul><li>Can result in disequilibrium and provides opportunities for students to confront preconceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide students opportunities to argue and debate their ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Illuminates alternative conceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides opportunity to construct more appropriate conceptions. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of instruction <ul><li>Number of instructional approaches including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbook-based approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiry approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=> Advantages and disadvantages? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Selecting Instructional Approaches <ul><li>There is no one best way to teach all science concepts to all children all the time! </li></ul><ul><li>Need to use a variety of teaching techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Just as inquiry has many different facets, so teachers need to use many different strategies to develop the understandings and abilities described in the Standards ” (NRC, 1996, P. 2) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Teacher Helps with 5E <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>