Educ 4


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Educ 4

  1. 1. Different Approaches andMethods
  2. 2. Direct/Expositive Instruction Approach• Direct Instruction is teacher-direct and teacher dominated. It ismeant for the teaching of skills.
  3. 3. Instructional Characteristics1. The strategy is teacher-direct.2. The emphasis is on the teaching of skills.3. Taught in a step by step fashion.4. Lesson objectives include easily observedbehaviors that an be measured accurately.5. This is a form of learning through imitation.
  4. 4. Deductive Method is teacher-dominated. It begins withthe abstract rule, generalization,principle and ends with specificexamples, and concrete detail.
  5. 5. Advantages of the Deductive Method1. Coverage of a wider scope of subject matter.2. No bother on the part of the teacher to leadlearners to the formulation of thegeneralization or rule.Disadvantages of the DeductiveMethod1. It is not supportive of the principle thatlearning is active process.2.Lessons Appears uninteresting at first.
  6. 6. Inductive Method is less teacher-directed than thedeductive method. It begins with specificdetails, concrete data and examples andends with an abstract generalization rule,or principle.
  7. 7. Advantages of Inductive Method1. The learners are more engage in the teaching-learning process.2. Learning becomes more interesting at theoutset because we begin with the experiencesof our students.3.It helps the development of our learners.
  8. 8. Disadvantages of the InductiveMethod1. It requires more time and so less subjectmatter will be covered.2. It demands expert facilitating skills onthe part of the teacher.
  9. 9. Demonstration Method is teacher-dominated. Theteacher shows how to operatemanipulate an equipment whilethe lass observes.
  10. 10. Advantages of Demonstration Method1.It follows a systematic procedure.2.Possible wastage of time, effort and resourceswill be avoided.3.The findings are reliable and accurate.4. The value of confidence is developed.
  11. 11. Inquiry MethodIs also called discovery, or problemsolving method. The teacherguides the students as they explorediscover.
  12. 12. Problem Solvingis a teaching strategy that employs thescientific method in searching forinformation.Advantages:1. It developed skills in employing the scienceprocesses.2. The scientific method can likewise be useeffectively in other non-science subjects.
  13. 13. 3. Problem-solving develops higher levelthinking skills.4. The students become appreciative andgrateful for the achievement of scientists.5. The students learned to accept the opinionsand evidence shared by others.
  14. 14. Project MethodA “hands-on, minds-on” method. It requirestudents to present concrete form learnedconcept or principle.Advantages:1. It is a teaching strategy that emphasizes“learning by doing”2. It ca employed among students who areweak in oral communications.
  15. 15. 3. It instills the values of initiative,industry and creativity.4. Working a projects groupsdeveloped develop the spirit ofcooperation and sharing of ideas.
  16. 16. Metacognitive ApproachMakes students think about theirthinking. Thinking aloud is an act ofmetacognition.Constructivist ApproachDemand students to construct theirown meaning out of their own learningexperiences.
  17. 17. Metacognitive ApproachMakes students think about theirthinking. Thinking aloud is an act ofmetacognition.Constructivist ApproachDemand students to construct theirown meaning out of their own learningexperiences.
  18. 18. When I remember Christ died for meI will never return to the world ;/no no (never)2x ah ah ah .......I will never return to the world .
  19. 19. Reflective teaching is anchored on the ability of the teacherto guide students to reflect on their ownexperiences in order to arrive at newundertaking & meaning.
  20. 20. Instructional CharacteristicsSchulman (1990) cites three keycharacteristics of reflective teaching1. An ethic of caring2. A constructivist approach3. Tactful problem solving
  21. 21. Practice the ethics of caring a teacher is guidedby 3 effective ways :1. Confirmation2. Dialogue3. Cooperative practice
  22. 22. Strategies1. Self-analysis reflective teacher able to keep record of hersuccess or failure in employing a strategy.2. Writing journals3. Keeping a portfolio4. Observation of students5. Questions
  23. 23. Cooperative Learning Approach Learning is a group helping each other learn butkeeping each individual member accountable forhis/her learning.Characteristic Features1. It has two important components, namely :• A cooperative incentive structure• A cooperative task structure
  24. 24. 2.Students work in team to tackle academictasks.3.Reward system4.Interaction w/in the group5.Teams are made up mixed abilities6.Each individual learner is accountable
  25. 25. Overview of Selected Structure in CooperativeLearningSTRUCTURE Brief Description Academic & Social FunctionRound robinTeambuilding•Each student shares something withhis/her teammates•Expressing ideas & opinionsComersClass building•Each students move to a corner of theroom representing a teacher-determined alternative.•Seeing alternativehypotheses, values, problemsolving approach.
  26. 26. Match MineCommunication Building•Students attempt to match thearrangement of object using oralcommunication only.•Vocabulary dev.Communication skillsNumbered HeadsTogetherMastery•Teacher asks question, studentsconsult to make sure everyone knowsthe answer.•Review, checking forknowledge, comprehension &tutoring.Praise Check •Students work in pairs w/in groups offour.•Practicing skills.•Helping, praising
  27. 27. Three-steps interviewConcept Development•Students interview each other inpairs, first one way, then the other.•Sharing personal informationThink-Pair Share •Students think to themselves on atopic provided by the teacher.•Generating & revisinghypotheses, inductive &deductive reasoning.Team Word-Webbing •Write simultaneously on a piece ofchart paper, drawing main concept•Analysis of concept intocomponents, differentiatingconcepts.
  28. 28. RoundtableMultifunctional•Each students in turn writes oneanswer as a paper & pencil are passedaround table.•Assessing prior knowledge,recalling informationInside-Outside Circle •Students stand in pairs in twoconcentric circle.•Checking for understanding,reviewPartners •Work in pairs to create or mastercontent.•Mastery & presentation ofnew materialJigsaw •Each student on the team becomesan “expert” on the topic•Acquisition & presentation ofnew material, reviewCo-op Co-op •Students work in groups to producea particular group•Learning & sharing complexmaterial, evaluation,application, analysis.
  29. 29. Peer tutoring/ Peer teachingIs a teaching with the help of a classmatetutor who belongs more or less to the sameage group.
  30. 30. Tutoring arrangement may be in any ofthe following :a. Instructional tutoring.b. Same age tutoring.c. Monitorial tutoring.d. Structural tutoring.e. Semi-structural tutoring.
  31. 31. Partner LearningIs teaming up with a classmate as a partner forlearning.
  32. 32. Developmental Activities1. For Data-gathering– Interview– Library research– Internet research– reading– Field trip
  33. 33. 2. For Organization & summarizing– Using graphic organizers– Jingles, rap, song– Verses– Power point presentation3.For Application/Creative activities– Solving real-word– Performances & demonstration of skill mastery
  34. 34. –Authentic project–Power point presentation–Television talk show4. For concluding activities–Review the KWL–Journals writing at the end of theperiod
  35. 35. END.....