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    • The science and study of the smallest grammatical units of language
    • The science of the formation of words including inflection, derivation, and composition
    • The study of the patterns of word-forms
    • The study of:
    • how the words are formed
    • where they originate from
    • what their grammatical forms are
    • what the function of prefixes and suffixes in the formation of words are
    • on what basis the parts of speech of a particular language are formed
    • How and why the word forms change
  • 2.
    • The synchronic and diachronic study of the
    • Word-forms
    • When it is only synchronic, it is termed as morphemics
    • Morphological analysis refers to the observation and description of the grammatical elements in a language by studying
    • their form and function
    • Their phonological variants
    • Their distribution and mutual relationships within larger stretches of speech
    • Morphological analysis may be synchronic or diachronic or may be both
  • 3. Morphology is complementary to Syntax
    • Grammar of words
    • Deals with the internal structure or forms of words
    • Refers directly to the forms o words in language system
    • Grammar of sentences
    • Deals with how the words are patterned into sentences
    • Refers to the form of the arrangement of words in the phrases and sentences
  • 4. Words and Morphemes
    • Word: any unit of language that, in writing, appears between spaces or between a space and a hyphen
    • Problem with defining the ‘word’
    • Ex. Dinner-table one unit?
    • Word is not really a unit of language but an articraft of the writing system
    • Problem with pauses: pauses occur often at the end of the phrase, clause and sentence
    • Speech with discernable pauses within each word would seem highly abnormal
    • Problem with defining word as minimum free forms
  • 5.
    • Concept of competence
    • Role of nonlinguistic factors that interfere with the competence at the time of performance
    • The writing system is a way of representing language not language itself
    • Defining the word interconnection of both linguistic and nonlinguistic information
    • Word: combination of three related concepts
    • 1- word as pure linguistic unit of competence
    • 2-word as a unit of performance used in speech
    • 3- word as a unit of performance used in writing
    • The first concept is the most important: It deals with the abstract, unconscious knowledge of the language that makes the other two possible
    • Syntactic Words can be identified on the basis of uninterruptability and mobility
  • 6. Morphemes
    • Minimal, distinct, syntactical units of grammatical structure
    • The units of ‘lowest’ rank out of which words, the units of next highest rank are composed
    • Grammatical function
    • Semantically different from other phonemically similar or identical linguistic forms
    • Not divisible or analyzable into smaller forms
    • If try to analyze a morpheme by breaking it up, it loses its identity and is left with meaningless noises
    • Morpheme leads us directly into the realm of phonology
  • 7.
    • Morphemes may or may not have meaning
    • They also may have or may not have phonological representation
    • In plural words we have two morphemes in each words:
    • The first has a phonological representation
    • The second is zero morpheme as it has no phonological representation, and present on at the semantic level not in spelling or pronunciation
    • Variation in Phonological representations:
    • As the plural morpheme is pronounced in plural words like cats, dogs, hands /z/ , and in churches, judges, classes /iz/, but no phonetic form in words like sheep, fish etc.
    • Then we have completely idiosyncratic forms such as oxen, children, etc.
  • 8.
    • It is not always clear whether or not given sound sequence should be considered a morpheme for ex. The word animal
    • The word ‘natural has two morphemes
    • {nature} {al}
    • Then we should regard the word woman as having two morphemes {wo-} {man} or not
    • A sound sequence is a morpheme in some words while absent in others as {un} is a morpheme in unnatural, unfaithful etc. but not in under or sun
    • A morpheme may be monosyllabic as {man} or polysyllabic as {happy} and {nature} etc.
    • Martinet has called a morpheme ‘a grammatical moneme”
    • ‘ Glosseme’ another synonym of the morpheme
  • 9. MORPHEMES Free Bound Prefix Initial position Infix Middle position Suffix Final position Derivational Inflectional Bound bases Class-maintaining Class-changing
  • 10. Free and Bound Morphemes
    • Bound Morphemes: classes that cannot occur alone such as less, un, pre, -up, de-, con-, -er etc.
    • Free Morphemes: classes that can occur alone such as dog, cat, yet, but, black, white, free, go etc.
    • Free Morphemes: lexical and functional
    • Lexical: that carry the content of message
    • Functional: serve some function such as conjunctions, prepositions, articles, pronouns etc.
  • 11.
    • Roots and affixes
    • Root morpheme is that part of word which is left when all the affixes have been removed
    • Roots may be bound or free
    • Potentially unlimited in language
    • Ex. {Un} {faith} {ful}
    • prefix root affix
    • All affixes are bound morphemes
    • Monomorphemic : The word consisting only free root morpheme ex. Cat, rat, hat etc.
  • 12.
    • Polymorphemic : The word consisting more than on root ex. Air-craft, dinner-table etc.
    • They are also called compound words, and can occur with or without affixes
    • Roots and affixes may be of any length and structure
    • Affixes generally are shorter than the roots
    • Criterion of determining the root : Its indivisibility into constituent morphemes by matching its parts with the parts of other words in the language
    • Affixes : the recurrent formative morpheme of words other than roots
  • 13.
    • Affixes
    Prefix Infix Suffix
    • Receive, remove,
    • Deceive, perform,
    • Unfaithful etc. In
    • These words re, de,
    • per, un all are
    • Prefixes
    • Affixed before
    • the root
    • Bound morphemes
    • The plural
    • formatives –s, -en
    • The verb paradigm
    • affixes –ing, -d, -ed
    • Bound morphemes
    • The plural and
    • superlative ending of
    • The adjectives –er, est
    • Other final position
    • Formatives such as
    • -ness, -less, -ment
    • Occur after the
    • root
    • Infixes are less
    • Commonly found
    • in English apart
    • from
    • one mode of
    • analysis of plural
    • Forms like geese,
    • men etc.
    • Mostly found in
    • Cambodian,
    • Sudanese,
    • Sanskrit etc.
  • 14. Morphs and allomorphs
    • Morph: Any phonetic shape or representation of a phoneme
    • The segmentation of words: segments are referred as morphs
    • Each morph represents a particular morpheme but each morpheme does not have a morph
    • Allomorphs: frequently it happens that a particular morpheme is not represented by the same morph but by different morphs on different environments
    • Allomorph is morpheme ‘variant’ or alternant’
    • A class of morphs which are phonemically and semantically identical
  • 15.
    • We can say that an allomorph is a family or class of morphs that are alike in two ways: 1- in the allophones of which they are composed
    • 2- in the meaning which they have
    • Allomorphs are phonemically conditioned as their forms are dependent on their adjacent phonemes
    • Or they are morphologically conditioned
    • Ex: /-z/ = /-z/ /-s/ /-iz/ / θ /
    • They all are the various allomorphs of plural morpheme /-z/
    • The study of allomorphs: halfway between phonology and morphology
    • Morphophonology or morphomology
    • Morphophonemics
  • 16. Phonological Conditioning
    • English plural morpheme provides best examples for phonologically conditioned allomorphs
    • /-s/ appears with morphs ending in /p, t, k, f, and θ / as k Λ ps, hæts, θ æ η ks, k כ fs etc.
    • /-z/ appears with morphs ending in /b, d, g, v, n, l, r, w, y, η , ðm/ as h Λ bs, d כ gz, rimz, gl Λ vz etc.
    • /-iz/ appears with morphs ending in /z,⌠, t⌠ etc. as kla: siz, di⌠iz, t⌠ Λ v ⌠iz etc.
    • Thus we find that
    • /-s/ appears after morphs ending in voiceless morphemes, except the sibilants and affricates
  • 17.
    • /-z/ appears after morphs ending in voiced morphemes, except the sibilants and affricates
    • /-iz/ appears after morphs ending in sibilants and affricates
    • Another example of phonological conditioning the past –ed tense
    • Represented by three phonological conditioned allomorphs /t/, /d/, /-id/
    • Rule governing their conditioning is as follows:
    • /-id/ occurs after morph ending in alveolar stops /t/ and /d/ as in wanted and wedded
    • /d/ occurs after voice phonemes except /d/ as in loved, called etc.
    • /t/ occurs after voiced phonemes except /t/ as in helped
  • 18. Morphological conditioning
    • In pairs such as Man-men,. Child-children, deer-deer, the second item contains the plural phoneme
    • Each morpheme is referred separately, or, alternatively to their phonemic shapes, and specify the allomorph of the plural morpheme separately for each
    • Morphologically conditioned allomorphs of a morpheme are regarded as irregular in contrast to phonologically conditioned
  • 19. Inflection and derivational morphemes
    • Both are suffixes and bound morphemes following a root
    • They are sub-categories of suffixes
    • Inflectional: do not allow further affixation of a suffix as in agree/d/ or agree/s/
    • Derivational: allow or may be followed by further affixes as in agree/able/ness/ etc.
    • Inflectional are always final in morpheme and their distribution is regular
    • They are ‘terminal’ as their termination never changes
    • Derivational may be final in the group they belong to or may be followed by other derivational suffixes or inflectional ones
    • They are of limited occurrence and their distribution tends to be arbitrary
    • Prefixes are always derivationals
  • 20. Class-maintaining and class-changing derivational suffixes
    • Class-maintaining: that produce a derived form of the same class as the underlying form, they do not change the class of a part of speech
    • Ex: boyhood, childhood, kinship etc. produce nouns out of nouns after suffixation
    • Class-changing: produce a derived form of another class
    • EX: teacher, boyish, national, development etc. we see the verb becomes a noun, noun adjective and so on