Information processing model file 2

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  • 1. Synectics Model Synectics is interesting new approach to the development of creativity designed by William J.J. Gordon and his associates
  • 2. Meaning
    • Synectics derived from Greek word mean “the joining together of different and apparently irrelevant elements”.
    • Integration of diverse individuals into a problem stating and problem solving group.
    • Creative process is the mental activity in problem stating and problem solving situations.
  • 3. Four Characteristics of Gordon’s model
    • creativity is important
    • the creative process is not at all mysterious.
    • creative invention is similar in all fields.
    • individual and group invention (creative thinking ) are very similar.
  • 4. Syntax
    • Describe the topic
    • Create direct analogies
    • Describe personal analogies
    • Identify compressed conflicts
    • Create new direct analogy
    • Re-examine the original topic
    • Evaluate
  • 5. Social System
    • It is moderately structured.
    • The teacher initiates the sequence and guides the use of the operational mechanisms.
    • He also helps the students intellectualize their mental processes.
    • Freedom for open-ended discussion as the engage in metaphorical problem solving.
    • Norms of co-operation ‘platy of fancy’ and intellectual and emotional equality are essential to establishing the setting fro creative problem solving.
  • 6. Principles of Reaction
    • The instructor notes the extent to which individuals seem to be tied to regularized patterns of thinking.
    • He or she tries to induce psychological states to generate creative response.
    • Where the problem is difficult to solve the teacher accepts far fetched analogies so that they develop fresh perspectives on problems.
  • 7. Support System
    • The group needs most of all facilitation by a leader competent.
    • In case of scientific problems a laboratory in which it can build models and other devices to make problems concerns and to permit practical invention to take place.
  • 8. Merits
    • develops creativity
    • develops problem solving ability
    • ensures co-operation
    • concern for fellow being
  • 9. Limitations
    • expensive in case of scientific problem as it requires laboratory.
    • Competent teacher to guide
    • conducive environment
  • 10. Advance Organizer Model of Teaching
    • It is a cognitive strategy proposed by Ausubel.
    • Allows learner to recall and transfer prior knowledge to the new information being presented.
    • This theory is based on the idea that learning is facilitated, if the learner can find meaning in the new information.
  • 11.
    • Contd….
    • When connection made between the new information and previous knowledge, the new information will be learned.
    • It provides a bridge that links the known to the unknown.
    • It encourage transfer and application of old knowledge, to make the new knowledge more meaningful to the learner.
  • 12. Syntax
    • It consists of three phases:
    • Presentation of Advance Organizer Presentation of Learning Task or Material
    • Strengthening Cognitive Organization
  • 13. Social System
    • Teacher retains control of the intellectual structure.
    • help students differentiate new material from previously learnt material.
    • the learning situation is ideally much more interactive, with students initiating many questions and comments.
  • 14. Principles of Reaction
    • The teacher’s solicited or unsolicited responses to the learner’s reactions are to be guided for the purpose of clarifying the meaning of the new learning material, differentiating it from and reconciling it with existing knowledge, making it personally relevant to the student, and helping to promote a critical approach to knowledge.
  • 15. Support System
    • Well organized material is the critical support requirement of this model.
    • The effectiveness of the advance organizer depends on an integral and appropriate relationship between the conceptual organizer and the content.
  • 16. Merits
    • meaningful assimilation of information and ideas.
    • it nurtures an interest in a inquiry and precise habits of thinking.
    • has wide applicability to different curriculum areas.
  • 17. Demerits
    • time consuming
    • competent teacher
    • all concepts cannot be taught in this manner
  • 18.
    • THANK YOU