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Making Familiar Strange Approach of Synectics Model of Teaching : A Treatment for Enhancing Creativity and Academic Achievement

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"MFS appraoach of Synectics Model

  1. 1. MAKING FAMILIAR STRANGE (MFS) APPROACH OF SYNECTICS MODEL OF TEACHING : A Treatment For Enhancing Creativity And Academic Achievement Of Learners A Dissertation Submitted to Lovely Professional University In Partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of the Degree of Master of Philosophy in Education Advisor : Investigator: Dr. Ramandeep Kaur Thind Uttam Thakur Senior Lecturer M.Phil. [Edu.] Lovely School of Education Department of Education Phagwara, Punjab 2007-08
  2. 2. Key Points <ul><li>Synectics Model of Teaching : It is a teaching strategy designed to realize specific instructional goals in enhancing creativity. This model is built upon metaphorical activities which by the use of analogies create conceptual distance between two concepts. For this purpose, synectics model rests upon two distinct approaches like “Making Familiar Strange” (MFS) and “Making Strange Familiar” (MSF). </li></ul><ul><li>Making Familiar Strange : It deals with the task of conceptualizing familiar things or concepts by the students in unfamiliar ways. Such task is achieved by means of the analogies that create conceptual distance between the parent concept or theme of discussion and the suggested analogy. For the purpose of introducing greater conceptual distance between the concept and the analogy, the comparison made from living vs. non-living and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity : It is conceived as the divergent production of ideas through the use of metaphorical activities. It is the ability of the individual to view a problem from different angles and to describe it by the help of various analogies. </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Achievement : The level or extent of attainment of the learners on selected curricular subject like Science. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Theoretical Orientation of the Problem <ul><li> Thinking is the most precious gift of God to human being to distinguish his identity from the rest of the creations. Everything that we comes across today in the form of innovations in all the fields of knowledge is the outcome of bold planning and creative imagination of the masterminds of the society from one generation to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Realising such a vital role played by creative thinking for the progress of the society, educate our children in the art of creative thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>The creative child of today is the hope for a better future. But one question very often strikes to our mind is “Can children be trained in creative thinking?” If, they can be trained then what is the strategy for developing their creativity? Creative teaching may be considered as the best strategy in this respect. Such strategy is generally accelerated by favourable conditions in teaching – learning situations which can be provided by a teacher to his young children. There are some suitable teaching strategies which can best accelerate the creative potential of the learners. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Significance of the Problem <ul><li>Creativity as a psychological construct is more or less present in each and every human being. This talent of the individual needs to be unfolded and nourished through a well planned and purposive programme of education, the creative ability of the human being is responsible for all sorts of change and progress of the society since time immemorial. Such creative ability of the human being is both inherited as well as acquired. But as the human being can’t have any control over heredity as a factor influencing creativity, at least the environment can be made conducive for enhancing the creative talents of the individuals. The school environment is supposed to play a very determining role in unfolding the creative talents of the learners. </li></ul><ul><li>School is a platform where ample opportunities are created for promoting creative thinking of the learners as well as their achievement in different fields of life. Presently, most of the schools intend to prepare their students in such a way that they would score high at the examination by getting the subject matter by heart and by means of cramming. They little bother whether the students have clear understanding of the learnt material or not. They provide very little scope to their students to think critically and divergently in the existing teaching-learning process usually practiced in most of the schools. There is no scope for novelty, originality and innovation. At the outset, the school in the name of discipline and obedience encourages convergent thinking only. Therefore, in attempt for enhancing creativity of school children, due attention is given to appropriate methods of teaching through which they can be given opportunity to think critically and divergently so that their understanding as well as creative thinking ability can be developed. Hence, the existing methods of teaching which put undue emphasis on convergent thinking ability are to be judiciously supplemented by appropriate methods meant for developing divergent thinking ability. Synectics model of teaching is one such approach which seems to have the genuine potentiality for enhancing creativity of the learners as it provides them the scope to participate in various metaphorical activities – the key to creative thinking ability. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Significance contd. <ul><li>Synectics model of teaching, as a completely new and novel strategy of teaching to the learners, is supposed to provide them some novel and funny experiences through the use of the analogies which happens to be its essential feature. Further, this strategy encourages divergent thinking among the learners and attempts to present a concept in a new approach which may develop among the learners a desire or motive to achieve something unique. Synectics as a group activity may also develop a sense of competitiveness and a strong sense or motive to achieve among the learners by means of introducing novel analogies as needed in the making familiar strange strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>In the light of the above discussion it is evident that creativity and academic achievement, both are indispensable for an individual’s personal upliftment as well as that of the society. The realization of this target to a great extent depends upon an appropriate teaching strategy. Therefore, in the present study an endeavour has been made by the investigator to find out the impact of “Making Familiar Strange” technique of synectics model of teaching in enhancing creativity and academic achievement. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Objectives <ul><li>Objectives in a research project really serve as the stepping stones to achieve its goal. They provide a clear-cut direction and vision to determine the course of action of any organized research programme. The following objectives were formulated for the purpose of the present study, </li></ul><ul><li>To study the effectiveness of the Making Familiar Strange (MFS) approach of synectics model of teaching on development of learners’ creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>To explore the impact of Making Familiar Strange (MFS) approach of synectics model of teaching on learners’ academic achievement in the subject of science. </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate the learners’ creativity with regard to gender. </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the learners’ academic achievement with regard to gender. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Delimitations <ul><li>The study was mainly of experimental nature. The impact of the independent variable of “Making Familiar Strange” approach of synectics model of teaching upon the dependent variables like creativity and academic achievement of class VIII learners have been studied. </li></ul><ul><li>For the purpose of experimentation, class VIII students of two schools of Kullu Distt. of Himachal Pradesh have been chosen. The student sample of both the schools and the method of management of both the schools were not of absolutely similar in nature. Hence, the experiment was of quasi-experimental type. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Review of Related Literature <ul><li>Review of literature is an integral part of any research activity, helps to have a clear vision and plan of action with reference to any specific aspect of the study. In the present study, an extensive review of the related literature in relation to the impact of different models of teaching in general and that of the synectics models of teaching in particular on the two dependent variables of the study namely, creativity and academic achievement. The synoptic views on different studies conducted in India and abroad have been presented in the following heads </li></ul><ul><li>Studies pertaining to the creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Studies pertaining to Models of teaching and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Studies pertaining to Synectics Models of teaching and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Studies pertaining to Models of Teaching and Academic Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Studies pertaining to Synectics Models of Teaching and Academic Achievement </li></ul>
  9. 9. Studies pertaining to the Creativity <ul><li>Mary S.G (2004) highlighted “A Study of Creativity of Class VI and Class VII Children in Relation to Some Variables”. 200 children were equally distributed between the two sexes and two classes, VI and VII formed the sample for the study. The tools used were four subtests of the Creativity test battery by Venkata Rami Reddy. It revealed that Boys were found to be better than girls on the fluency component of verbal creativity. There was a significant difference between intelligence and creativity as measures by verbal tests and non verbal tests put together. There was no significant difference between creativity and self concept, scientific attitude and level of adjustment. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaur (2006) carried out a study on “Creativity in Children: The Impact of School and Home Environment”. The findings revealed that (i) Urban schools were better than rural schools in terms of physical facilities school activities and teacher’s behaviour. (ii) Children of urban school scored higher on all the four aspects of creativity than their rural counterparts. (iii) A significant positive correlation between creativity and home environment was found. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Studies pertaining to Models of teaching and creativity <ul><li>Haneock (1987) explored “The impact of Guided Design, Self-Instruction and Group Problem-Solving Approaches on Development of creativity of learners”. He examined that the later two strategies viz. self-instruction and group problem solving approaches had positive effect on development of creativity whereas the teaching through the guided design approach failed to develop creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Rickards (1987) performed a study on “Development of Creativity through Computer Assisted Instruction”. The purpose of the study was to inquire the prospects of computer assisted instruction in the development of creativity of the children. The results showed that the Computer assisted instructions had a significantly affirmative result on the development of the creativity of the learners and it also reduced the burden on the teachers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Studies pertaining to Synectics Models of teaching and creativity <ul><li>Martis (1989) conducted an experimental study on the “Effectiveness of Making the Strange Familiar (MSF) Approach of Synectics Model of Teaching in developing the Creative Thinking of a Group of class VIII students”. In this study the researcher trained a group of graduate student teachers to develop their competency in the MSF approach of synectics model of teaching. The findings revealed that the synectics model of teaching was found to be successful in developing the creative thinking ability of the sampled students. </li></ul><ul><li>Navalakha (1997) performed a study on “Effect of Synectics upon the Self-Concept, Creativity and Achievement of the Learners”. The study was conducted on 6th grade students. These subjects were taught social studies through synectics approach. Both verbal and non-verbal tests on creativity as developed by Baquer Mehdi were used to assess creativity. He explored that synectics model of teaching proved to be efficient for developing the creative thinking ability of the respondents of the study. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Studies pertaining to Models of Teaching and Academic Achievement <ul><li>Aziz (1990) conducted study on “Inductive Model of Teaching in order to assess its Impact on Academic Achievement of Learners”. The study aimed to assess the impact of inductive model of teaching on the academic achievement of learners. The results showed that the inductive model of teaching plays significant role in developing the learners’ level of academic achievement in different curricular subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Verma (1991) studied the “Personalised System of Instruction (PSI) as a Teaching Strategy for Developing Academic Achievements of the Learners”. Findings revealed that the personalized system of instruction (PSI) puts significant impact on the development of academic achievement of learners. The reason behind the study was to examine the effectiveness of personalized system of instruction on academic achievement. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Studies pertaining to Synectics Models of Teaching and Academic Achievement <ul><li>Huebner (1981) conducted a study on “Development of Academic Achievement in Creative Problem Solving and Thinking Strategies for the Gifted and Talented Students through Synectics Model of Teaching”. In this study the effectiveness of synectics model of teaching as a strategy for development of academic achievement was examined for the gifted and talented students ranging from kindergarten to intermediate levels. They reported that the synectics strategy plays significant role in developing the academic achievement of the respondents. </li></ul><ul><li>Chaudhuri (1999) explored “Effect of Synectics Model, Gaming Strategy and Traditional Method towards Achievement and their Interaction with the Learner”. The study was conducted with a sample of class 6th students of Indore City. They reported that the synectics model of teaching had a differential impact on academic achievement of students. Further, the study reported that the boys showed lower academic achievement in comparison to the girls. However, there was an increase in the achievement of both the groups. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Related Literature and the Present Study <ul><li>The research findings on synectics model of teaching were reported to be effective for developing the creative thinking ability of the students of different grades and in almost all the cases different teaching and training strategies helped in developing creativity of the learners irrespective of their grades or levels of learning. However, in none of the above studies, the synectics model of teaching was tried out to study its impact on development of creativity of the learners. In this connection some of the studies relating to the impact of synectics model of teaching on creative ability of learners are worth mentioning. The results of almost all the studies cited above indicate positive impact of different teaching strategies in developing the academic achievement of the learners. On the basis of the findings of these studies it was concluded that any teaching strategy, if properly manipulated, can develop the academic achievement of the learners. The creative problem-solving ability cannot be considered as totally unrelated to academic achievement of the learners. It has also some degree of contribution towards the academic achievement of the learners. But a few researchers have studied the impact of synectics model in developing the academic achievement of the learners. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hypotheses <ul><li>The study incorporates the following hypotheses for testing through the process of investigation. These have been expressed in null form for empirical verification. </li></ul><ul><li>Making Familiar Strange (MFS) approach of synectics model of teaching has no significant effect on the creativity of the learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Making Familiar Strange (MFS) approach of synectics model of teaching has no significant effect on learners’ academic achievement in Science. </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity does not play any significant difference among boys and girls. </li></ul><ul><li>There exist no significant difference among boys and girls on academic achievement. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Design of the Study <ul><li>It is non-equivalent control group design of quasi-experimental type. </li></ul><ul><li> Independent variable Dependent variables </li></ul>Making Familiar Strange (MFS) approach of Synectics Model of Teaching. Academic Achievement Creativity
  17. 17. Sampling Procedure <ul><li>The sample size of the present study was 73 students of class VIII. 41 students were under experimental group among them 25 were boys and 16 were girls. In the control group there were 32 students, comprising of 17 boys and 15 girls. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to conduct the present study, Out of all high schools of Kullu district, four schools were selected having almost similar nature with respect to their management, infrastructural facilities, teachers and student strength. Out of these four schools two were selected randomly by lottery method. Then, Snower Valley Public School, Bajaura, was randomly identified as the experimental school and Nav-Jyoti Public School, Sarwari, as the controlled one. The non-randomized intact student groups of class VIII of the randomly selected two schools were considered as the subjects of experiment. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Treatment <ul><li>As the present investigation was experimental in nature, the subjects of the experimental groups were taught through the MFS approach of the synectics model of teaching and the subjects of the controlled group were taught through the traditional approach of teaching. The investigator himself taught to the subjects of the experimental group through the synectics approach of teaching whereas the subjects of the controlled group were taught by their class teacher by means of the traditional approach. However, the teaching of the teacher of the control group was supervised by the investigator. As a whole 6 lessons were delivered to each of the control and experimental groups. Before the beginning of the treatment the subjects of both the groups were pre-tested on the dependent variables namely, creativity and academic achievement in science and were also again post-tested on the same dependent variables. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Design of the Teaching Programmes on Science Themes and Testing to the Experimental Group and Control Group 2. Achievement Test in Science (Form-B) 2. Achievement Test in Science (Form-A) 1. Non-verbal Test on Creativity developed by Baqer Mehdi 1. Plastic 2. Glass 3. Ceramics 4. Soap 5. Fertilizer 6. Pesticides Science 1. Non-verbal Test on Creativity developed by Baqer Mehdi Post-test Themes Subject Pre-test
  20. 20. Tools <ul><li>Non-verbal Test on creativity developed and standardized by Baqer Mehdi (1985). </li></ul><ul><li>One Comprehensive Achievement Test developed by the investigator for the Science subject. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Test on Non-Verbal Creativity <ul><li>Non-verbal test on creativity is meant to measure the individual’s ability to deal with figural content in a creative manner. For this purpose, three types of activities are included in the test. Such activities are ‘picture construction’, ‘picture completion’, and ‘triangles and ellipses’. This test is meant for the subjects belonging to the age group of 12 to 15 years. The time limit for responding to the test is fixed at 35 minutes. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Test on Academic Achievement <ul><li>The investigator has made an attempt to study the impact of the MFS approach of synectics model of teaching on the academic achievement of the learners in the curricular science subject. Two sets of equivalent forms of achievement tests (Form A and Form B) were prepared on each of this subject. The purpose of developing such equivalent tests is to determine the mean scores of the control group and experimental group through pre and post-testing procedure. In this respect, one comprehensive achievement test was developed at the Pre-test level (form A) in the curricular science subject. Further, another one set of comprehensive achievement tests (form B) were also developed at the post-test level in the same subject. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Administration And Data Collection <ul><li>In order to administer all such tests for the purpose of collection of the required data, a testing schedule was planned by the investigator for the Pre-testing as well as post-testing phases. At each phase of testing two tests were administered on the learners of the control group and experimental group. It was decided to administer one test on each day to the groups because the investigator himself had to administer the tests. As such, two days were to be devoted for the pre-testing in respect of all those variables. It is mentioned here that on each day of testing the investigator administered the concerned test on the experimental group in the forenoon session whereas the same was administered to the control group in the afternoon session. Similar type of testing schedule was followed at the post-testing phase. </li></ul><ul><li>The tests were administered in a congenial atmosphere after establishing rapport with the learners and their class teachers. Before the distribution of the tests, the learners were advised not to open the test booklets till they were asked to do so for responding. They were also told to return the test booklets after responding to all the items of the respective tests within the time specified for each of them. After the time was over, all the answer sheets were collected and made ready for scoring. A detailed description has been made with regard to the method of administration of the different tests to the subjects of the control group and experimental group in Appendix. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Statistical Techniques <ul><li>Mean, Standard Deviation and Standard Error of Difference were used to understand nature of data. </li></ul><ul><li>t – test was employed to find out the significant difference between means. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Main Findings <ul><li>1.Creativity in control group and experimental group </li></ul>The mean scores of control group and experimental group are 153.72 and 151.43 respectively, this implies that the creativity scores of first group were slightly higher than the second group. Standard deviation of the control group was higher i.e. 34.71 than the experimental group i.e. 31.7 signifying that there is more variation in the scores of students of control group than those in experimental group. The ‘t’ value 0.506 has been found to be insignificant at 0.05 showing thereby that both the groups were having equivalent levels of creativity at initial level. 1.1 Pre-test Scores on Creativity of Control Group and Experimental Group
  26. 26. 1.2 Synectics (MFS) Approach of Teaching on Development of Creativity of Control Group and Experimental Group <ul><li>The mean scores of pre-test and post-test of control group were 153.72 and 131.03 respectively. It implies that the creativity scores in pre-test were slightly higher than in post-test. Standard deviation of the pre-test was higher i.e. 34.71 than the post-test i.e. 25.58, signifying that there is more variation in the scores of students in pre-test than in post-test. The calculated t-value from the data was 0.006. The calculated ‘t’ value was less than the table ‘t’ value at 0.05 level of confidence and therefore, the calculated ‘t’ value was insignificant. It is interpreted that the mean differences in creativity in pre-test and post-test were insignificant. Thus, there was no change in the levels of creativity in control group. </li></ul><ul><li>The mean scores of experimental group on pre-test and post-test are 151.43 and 216.09 respectively. It explored that the creativity scores in pre-test were lower than the post-test scores. Standard deviation of the pre-test scores are 31.7 and post-test scores are 23.75 indicating that there is more stability in the scores of students in post-test. The calculated t-value from the data was 7.37. The calculated ‘t’ value was more than the table ‘t’ value at 0.01 level of confidence and hence, the calculated ‘t’ value is significant. Therefore, it indicates that the mean differences in creativity that existed between the pre-test and post-test scores were significant. Thus, the post-test scores of experimental group were significantly higher than the pre-test scores. </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of the results it accomplished that the synectics model of teaching had significant impact in developing the creativity of the learners. The significant difference between the mean scores of the Control group and experimental group is due to the impact of the synectics model of teaching upon the development of the creativity of the learners of the experimental group. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1.3 Comparison of Post-test Scores on Creativity of Control Group and Experimental Group <ul><li>Post-test scores of control group and experimental group were compared to know the gain in the creativity scores. The increase in the creativity was due to the treatment given to the experimental group. From the following discussions it is evident that only due to the experimental treatment resulted in the increase in creativity level of learners. </li></ul><ul><li>The mean scores of post-tests of control and experimental group were 131.03 and 216.09 respectively. The standard deviation of the groups was 25.58 and 23.75 respectively. It indicates that the variation in the scores of creativity was more in control group than in the experimental group. The calculated t-value being 3.386 which is higher than the table t-value at 0.05 level of confidence. It shows that there was a significant difference in the creativity in post-test scores of control and experimental group. </li></ul><ul><li>The results revealed that there is no significant difference in the creative thinking ability of the learners of the control group and experimental group prior to their exposure to the respective treatments. Further, there was also no such significant difference between the pre-test and post-test mean scores of the control group, where as a significant difference between the pre and post-test mean scores of the learners of experimental group was obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothesis of the present study states that the making familiar strange (MFS) approach of synectics model of teaching has no significant effect on the creativity of the learners. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in the creativity in post-test scores of control and experimental group. Thus the findings are not in favour of the hypothesis of the study. Hence, hypothesis stands rejected. </li></ul><ul><li>The synectics model of teaching should be used by the teachers for developing the creativity of the learners. The teacher-training institutions should include synectics model of teaching as a teaching strategy in the teacher education in the curriculum. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>2.Academic Achievement in control group and experimental group </li></ul>The mean scores of control group on academic achievement were 16.16 and that of experimental group was 14.12. The standard deviations of the groups were 3.77 and 3.50 respectively. The calculated t-value from the data was 0.02. The calculated ‘t’ value was less than the table ‘t’ value at 0.05 level of confidence. Hence, the calculated ‘t’ value is insignificant. The t-value 0.02 has been found to be insignificant at 0.05 level of confidence. Therefore, the results have explored that scores of the control and the experimental groups on academic achievement were equivalent at initial level. 2.1 Pre-test Scores of Academic Achievement in the Control Group and Experimental Group
  29. 29. 2.2 Synectics Approach (MFS) of Teaching on Academic Achievement of the Control Group and Experimental Group in Science <ul><li>The mean scores of pre-test and post-test scores on academic achievement of control group were 16.16 and 17.28 respectively. It indicates academic achievement scores in pre-test were slightly lower than in post-test. Standard deviation of the pre-test was lower i.e. 3.77 than the post-test i.e. 5.29, signifying that there is more variation in the scores of students in post-test than in pre-test. The calculated t-value from the data was 0.358. The calculated ‘t’ value was less than the table ‘t’ value at 0.05 level of confidence with 31 degree of freedom and therefore, the calculated ‘t’ value was insignificant. It was interpreted that the mean differences in Academic Achievement in pre-test and post-test were insignificant. Thus, there was no change in the levels of Academic achievement was observed in control group. </li></ul><ul><li>The mean scores of experimental group on pre-test and post-test were 14.12 and 21.19 respectively. Results revealed that the academic achievement scores in post-test were higher than the pre-test scores. Standard deviation of the pre-test scores was 3.50 and those of post-test were 3.83 indicating that there is more stability in the scores of students in post-test. The calculated t-value from the data was 9.21. The calculated ‘t’ value was more than the table ‘t’ value at 0.01 level of confidence and hence, the calculated ‘t’ value is significant. Therefore, it is interpreted that the mean differences in academic achievement that existed between the pre-test and post-test scores were significant. Thus, the gains in the academic achievement post-test scores of experimental group were significantly higher than the pre-test scores. </li></ul>
  30. 30. 2.3 Comparison of Post-test Scores on Academic Achievement of the Control Group and Experimental Group <ul><li>The mean scores of post-tests of control and experimental group were 17.28 and 21.19 respectively. The standard deviations of the groups were 5.29 and 3.83 respectively. It indicates that the scores of academic achievement show less variation in case of experimental group than in control group. The calculated t-value from the data was 2.69, which was higher than the table t-value at 0.05 level of confidence with 71 degree of freedom. Thus, there was a significant difference in the academic achievement of Post-test scores of control and experimental group. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothesis of the present study states that the making familiar strange (MFS) approach of synectics model of teaching has no significant effect on learners’ achievement in Science. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in the academic achievement of Post-test scores of control and experimental group. Thus, the findings are not in favour of the hypothesis of the present study. Hence, hypothesis stands rejected. </li></ul><ul><li>Synectics model of teaching enhances the academic achievement of the children. The synectics model of teaching should also be used by the teachers for developing the academic achievement of the learners. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>3. Creativity in Control Group and Experimental Group with Regard to Gender </li></ul>One of the objectives of the present study was to find the impact of the making familiar strange (MFS) approach of synectics model of teaching on the creativity among boys and girls. Mean scores of boys and girls on creativity post-test were 182.71 and 173.51 respectively. Result indicates that the mean value of boys is higher than the mean value of girls, thus boys are having higher creativity than the girls. The standard deviation of scores of boys i.e. 49.83 is also higher than scores of girls i.e. 48.17. It implied that the variation in the scores of boys is more than the girls. The calculated t-value for the data was 0.432, which is less than the table t-value at 0.05 level of confidence with 71 degree of freedom. Therefore, it is interpreted that the difference in the mean scores of post-test on creativity between boys and girls was insignificant. Hence, the boys and girls are equivalent on post-test of creativity. The hypothesis stated as the creativity doesn’t put any significant difference among the boys and girls is partially accepted.
  32. 32. <ul><li>4. Academic Achievement of both Control group and experimental group with regard to Gender </li></ul>The present study aimed at assesses the impact of the making familiar strange (MFS) approach of synectics model of teaching on the academic achievement of the learners. The mean scores of boys and girls on academic achievement were 20.09 and 18.65 respectively. The standard deviation of boys was 4.49 and that of girls was 5.37. It indicates that the scores of boys were less than the scores of girls. The calculated t-value for the data was 0.215 which was less than the table t-value. The findings revealed that the boys and girls were equivalent on the Academic Achievement. The hypothesis stated that there exist no significant difference among the boys and girls on academic achievement is accepted.
  33. 33. Conclusions <ul><li>Creativity of the learners of both the control and the experimental groups are found equivalent after pretest. </li></ul><ul><li>Making Familiar Strange (MFS) approach of synectics model of teaching is found to be effective in enhancing the creativity of the learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional approach of teaching is found to be not effective in enhancing the creativity of the learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Academic achievement of the learners of both the control and the experimental groups after the pretest was found to be equivalent. </li></ul><ul><li>Making Familiar Strange (MFS) strategy of synectics model of teaching plays significant impact upon the academic achievement of the learners in the subject of science. </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional approach of teaching is not successful in developing the academic achievement of the learners in the subject of science. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no difference among the boys and girls on their creative thinking ability. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no differentiation between the boys and girls on their academic achievement. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Educational Implications <ul><li>The synectics model of teaching should be used as a teaching technique for teaching various curricular subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>The synectics model of teaching should be used by the teachers for developing the creativity of the learners. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher-training institutions should include synectics model of teaching as a teaching strategy in the teacher education in the curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive orientation, through in-service training should be arranged for teaching to acquaint them with this approach of teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher should motivate a creative child and reward them for their creative thinking. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Limitations <ul><li>Making familiar strange approach can also be studied with different variables on different subjects of curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Different tests of creativity like verbal test of creativity and Torrance test of creativity etc. can also be administered. </li></ul><ul><li>Synectics model of teaching can be employed on adolescent of government school students. </li></ul><ul><li>Another strategy of synectics model of teaching i.e. Making strange familiar ca also be adopted. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Recommendations <ul><li>The review of related studies on synectics model of teaching reveals that most of the studies on synectics approach have been conducted on the sample selected from among the student population of higher primary level. Therefore, it is suggested that separate studies may be tried in similar line at the primary, secondary and higher secondary levels of the school education programme. </li></ul><ul><li>As it has been reported earlier, the synectics model of teaching has two approaches namely the approach of Making the Strange Familiar (MSF) and Making the Familiar Strange (MFS). The present piece of investigation was conducted on the MFS approach in order to find out its effectiveness only in some of the selected subject namely Science. Therefore, studies may be conducted to find out its effectiveness in some other curricular subjects other than the Science. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been reported earlier in the review of related literature section of this report that very few studies have been conducted to study the impact of the MFS approach on academic achievement in single subject. Therefore, the present investigator feels inclined to suggest that more intensive studies may be conducted in this regard. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies can be conducted on the Making Strange Familiar (MSF) approach of synectics model of teaching in order to find out its effectiveness on creativity and academic achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of synectics model of teaching can be determined on several other dependent variables like intelligence, personal and social adjustment, mental health, anxiety, study habits and the like. </li></ul><ul><li>It is recommended that steps may be taken to apply this approach with necessary modification for developing the creativity of the learners in different curricular area. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Suggestions for Further Research <ul><li>The study can be extended to senior secondary school, college and university students. </li></ul><ul><li>More subjects like mathematics, social Studies, English, Hindi etc can also be included in the study. </li></ul><ul><li>A comparison between the two approaches can also be studied. </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of synectics model of teaching can studied on more dependent variables like intelligence, personal and social adjustment, mental health, anxiety, study habits etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The other approach making strange familiar approach can also be studied. </li></ul><ul><li>The approach can be included in the regular teaching strategy adopted in the schools. </li></ul><ul><li>A comparative study of different approaches of enhancing creativity can be undertaken. </li></ul><ul><li>Different tests of creativity can be administered. </li></ul><ul><li>A new test of creativity can be developed since Baqer Mehdi’s test of creativity is of 1985 and the aspects of creativity have been advanced too much since then. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Bibliography <ul><li>Abruzzo, E and Others (1987) Influence of training in creative thinking and problem solving on the creative behaviour of fifth grade pupils. Hofstra University. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49(7), P. 1679-1696. </li></ul><ul><li>Agarwal, R and Misra, K.S (1988) Effectiveness of reception concept attainment model of teaching for enhancing attainment of science concepts. Indian Educational Review, Vol 23 (2), p. 130-133. </li></ul><ul><li>Andersson, A.L. & Ryhammer (1998) Psychoanalytic models of the mind, creative functioning and perceptgenetic reconstruction. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought, 21, p. 359-382. </li></ul><ul><li>Arieti, S (1976) Creativity : The magic synthesis, New York : Basic Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Berkmer, R and others (1989) Evaluating the effectiveness of a design course in teaching creative problem solving. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 50 (9), p. 2763-A DA 9002963. </li></ul><ul><li>Besemer, S. P. & Treffinger, D. J (1981) Analysis of creative products: review and synthesis. The Journal of Creative Behavior, vol.15, no.3, pages 158-77. </li></ul><ul><li>Best, J.W. & Kahn, J.V (2005) Research in Education. Pearson Hall, New Delhi. </li></ul><ul><li>Bhatnagar, A.B (1999) Advanced Educational Psychology. L.B.D. Publisher and Distributor, College Road, Meerut. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Bibliography contd… <ul><li>Brown, Thorpa Kolly (1980) Effects of synectics education system’s connection making skills on learning of title I sixth Graders. Temple university . </li></ul><ul><li>Buch, M.B (1983) Third Survey of Research in Education, New Delhi, NCERT. </li></ul><ul><li>Buch, M.B (1993) Fourth Survey of Research in Education, New Delhi, NECRT. </li></ul><ul><li>Buch, M.B (2000) Fifth Survey of Research in Education, New Delhi, NCERT. </li></ul><ul><li>Buch, M.B (2005) Sixth Survey of Research in Education , New Delhi, NCERT. </li></ul><ul><li>Dacey, J. & Lennon, K (2000) Understanding creativity: the interplay of biological, psychological and social factors. Creative Education Foundation, Buffalo, NY. </li></ul><ul><li>Dhaliwal, A.S. and Saini (1976) Relationship of Creativity with over and under academic achievement Psychological studies , Volume21, No.2, p.340. </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenmann, R (1997) Mental illness, deviance and creativity. The creative research handbook, vol. 1, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ. </li></ul><ul><li>Eysenck, H. J (1997) Creativity and personality. The Creativity Research Handbook , vol. 1, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster (1971) Quoted by B.S.Dagar : Culture, Education and Creativity. Delhi : Upall Publishing House. </li></ul><ul><li>Gordon, William. J.J (1961) Synectics. New York : Harper and Row. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Bibliography contd… <ul><li>Guilford, J.P (1962) Factors that aid and hinder creativity. Teachers college Record , 63, 380-392. </li></ul><ul><li>Gupta, K .K (1979) Creativity, intelligence and Achievement, The Educational Review, Volume.85, No.11, pp 208-212. </li></ul><ul><li>Hooda, R.C (1982) Effect of Mastery Learning Strategy (MLS) on pupil achievement. 4th Survey of Research in Education, New Delhi, NCERT. </li></ul><ul><li>Khandwalla, P.N (1988) Fourth Eye – Excellence through creativity. Wheeler publishing, New Delhi. </li></ul><ul><li>Koul, L (2006) Methodology of Educational Research. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., Delhi. </li></ul><ul><li>MacKinnon, D.W (1975) IPAR’s contribution to the conceptualization and study of creativity. Perspectives in creativity , Aldine, Chicago IL, 1975. </li></ul><ul><li>Martis, Anadi (1989) “Developing Making the Strange Familiar (MSF) competencies through synectics model of teaching in graduate student teachers and the study of their reactions and the reactions of pupils”. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (MP). </li></ul><ul><li>Mednick, S.A (1962) The associative basis for the creative process. Psychological Review, 69. </li></ul><ul><li>Mijares, colmenares, Brizeida E (1988) Effects of the scamper technique on anxiety and creative thinking of intellectually gifted students. Psychological Reports, Vol. 63, No. 2. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Bibliography contd… <ul><li>Passi, B.K (1972) Quoted from 5th Survey of Research in Education. New Delhi : NCERT. </li></ul><ul><li>Raina, M.K (1969) Creativity research in India : An analysis. Journal of Creative Behaviour , 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers, C.R (1954) Towards a theory of creativity. ETC . A Review of General Semantics, 11, 249-290. </li></ul><ul><li>Saxena, N.R. mishra, B.K. & Mohanty R.K (2006) Fundamentals of educational Research. R. Lall Book Depot, Meerut. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharma, Deepika and Sansanwal, D.N (1993 ) Effectiveness of instructional material for developing creativity of Class VII students. Journal of Educational Research and Extension, Vol. 30, No. 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharma, T.K (1997) Effect of school background on creativity, Anxiety and Self-perception – A factorial study. New Delhi : Sri Hari Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Simonton, D.K (1984) Genius, creativity and leadership: historiometric enquiries, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, M.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg, R.J (1988) A three-facet model of creativity’ in R.J. Sternberg (ed). The nature of creativity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, I.A (1975) A retrospective view of creative imagination, in I.A. Taylor and J.W. Getzels (Eds.). Perspectives in creativity, Chicago : Aldine Publishing Co. </li></ul><ul><li>Torrance, E.P (1962) Guiding creative talent, Englewood cliffs. N.J. Prentice-Hall. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Thank You

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