SOME MODELS OF TEACHING[Chapter 4] By: Xyrille Yves Zaide BSED II
What are MODELS ? Models are mental reconstructions of reality. They are representations used as aids to easily remember parts and/or functions of a certain system, cycle, objects, etc. An interpretation formed by piecing
Curriculum Design A particularshape, framework, or pattern of learning opportunities
Curriculum Design’s Focus1. Subject matter / disciplines2. Specific competencies / technology3. Human traits / processes4. Social functions / activities5. Individual needs & interests / activities
The design selected influences thefollowing: In designing a Instructional strategies suitable and relevant curriculum, cur Roles of teachers and riculum planners should always learners Instructional consider political, social, economic, tech nological and materials environmental factors and Evaluation theories in the field of child psychology. strategies
Understanding relationships & differences between: curriculum Instructio n Teachi ng
Relationships and DifferencesCurriculum Instruction Teaching Plan for providing Actual A process whereby a person mediates sets of learning. engagement of between another learners with person & the substance of this planned learning world to facilitate. opportunities. Effective plans for Make provision for For the mediating opportunities for their implementation functions between learning. persons and materials.
Teaching Model A pattern of teaching made up of a number of discrete behaviors but with a specific focus. Can clarify educational ends by laying out a panorama of possible objectives. Expands horizons of teaching possibilities for community agency. Provides a review updating for individuals who have had method of courses.
Fourteen Teaching Models1. Lecture2. Discussion- questioning3. Viewing-listening4. Inquiry Training5. Instructional Systems Design6. Programmed Instruction7. Practice and Drill
Fourteen Teaching Models8. Role Playing9. Simulation10. Community Activities11. Group Investigation12. Jurisprudential13. Independent Learning & Self- instruction14. Synectics
SEVEN of the 14 TeachingModels 1. LECTURE Lecture is when an instructor is the central focus of information transfer. Typically, an instructor will stand before a class and present information for the students to learn
Lecture Major Student Teacher Teaching Uses and Value DrawbacksCharacteristics Grouping Activity Activity Resources and DefectsCan be a May be Students are Teachers Chalkboard, Creating There istalk, used with passive, and speak, read, model, interest in a littleaddress, or any size assimilating and often transparencies topic or subject; studentother types class but information use some , or other transmitting activity andof verbal usually through visual visual and knowledge to involvemenpresentation from 20- listening and illustration. auditory aids. students; t.by a teacher, 300 note-taking. presenting newspeaker, or students. information/panel. There may be interpretation; some viewing clarification ; as etc. supplement.
SEVEN of the 14 TeachingModels 2. Discussion- questioning An alternative to straight lecture is class discussion. Instead of the teacher simply telling the students the material with only occasional questions, whole-group discussions are more interactive. The teacher will still present some new materials but the students will be required to participate by answering and asking questions, and providing examples.
Discussion-questioning Major Student Teacher Teaching Uses and Drawbacks andCharacteristics Grouping Activity Activity Resources Value DefectsIncludes Used in Varies Teacher The Transmit Much too oftenquestions traditionally among dominates teacher is knowledge; discussion andand answers sized members of classroom usually the assists questioningabout classes the class, situation, and only students in may result inassigned with 20-35 which may show film resource. organizing little realmaterial/ students.. sometimes or use audio knowledge thought orrelated depends on materials as Other and, reasoningtopics; class the topic/ supplement to resources developing apparent;discourse; subject. recitation and are printed, concepts often quiteworking/ discussion. visual, and generali- boring topresenting Some class and/or zations. students; lowsolutions members are auditory level of quite passive materials. student most of the participation time.
SEVEN of the 14 TeachingModels 3. Viewing-listening With the use of model and other educational media equipment associated with inter- disciplinary approach, lessons are made more interesting for students to view and listen attentively.
Viewing-listening Major Student Teacher Activity Teaching Uses and Value DrawbacksCharacteristi Grouping Activity Resources and Defects csUses Media are Ranges Teacher does Printed Helpful in Instructionalinstruction used with from very not dominate materials, providing media mayal media; regular- passive to the learning visual and individual bematerials sized very active activity itself. auditory instruction; improperlyfor viewing classes to – varying materials, useful in orand large exceedingly Teacher actual providing inappropriatlistening; groups, at according to arranges for the observation, remedial work ely used;students all school kind of use of models, and and concept teachersmay levels and resource equipment, teaching development; maypersonally higher used and plan, explains, machines. highly valuable overuse toobserve education. purpose in instructs, in motivating the neglecthabitats, using it. demonstrates student activity; of otherexisting and evaluates. provides desirableevents, meaningful teachingetc. experiences. models.
SEVEN of the 14 Teaching Models 4. Inquiry Training Requires students to develop skills in searching for and processing data, and to develop concepts of logic and causality. The ultimate goal is an autonomous learner.
Inquiry Training Major Student Teacher Teaching Uses and Drawbacks Characteristics Grouping Activity Activity Resources Value and DefectsProcedures Usually not Students are Identifies and Puzzling Inquiry Approachrelate directly to larger than confronted presents the situation approach requires athe way a size of a with an event discrepant or enables teacher withindividuals normal they cannot event; should discrepant students to a thoroughexpand their class; often explain – a be able to event learn grasp of theintellect through small- discrepant supply from concepts method of3 interacting & group and event; they necessary teacher. within a inquiry and acomplementary committee have access data when discipline; knowledgefunctions: activity; to data questioned; approach of the dataEncountering individual through assist the encourages relevant tothe environment, study and asking. students in students to discrepantprocessing the investigatio tracing their become events.data obtained, n. steps in the autonomousand reorganizing inquiry learners.one’s own processknowledge
SEVEN of the 14 TeachingModels 5. Instructional Systems Design Based on an information processing model of learning It showcases the innovative ways in which teachers, school administrators, and district administrators use data to improve teaching and learning in schools.
Instructional Systems Design Major Student Teacher Activity Teaching Uses and DrawbacksCharacteri Grouping Activity Resources Value and Defects sticsConduct May be Determined Teachers who Predetermined Teachers Studentsinstructio used with by pretest use pre- units or modules can pinpoint maynal class results. developed may be available their becomeanalysis, groups or Students system are together with teaching to bored foridentify individuals; with the primarily necessary specific constantentry strategies prerequisite facilitators and supportive skills and use ofbehavior depend skills are monitors of materials. adapt approach;character upon provided with student Instructional instruction notistics, behavior a series of progress, while system to individual appropriatedevelop character- activities for teachers who designers may needs of for all goalsinstructio istics of learning develop their need students. ofnal learners; often utilizing own programs consultative education.strategy, a variety of are instructional assistance andetc. media. system access to variety designers. of media
SEVEN of the 14 TeachingModels 6. Programmed Instruction The learner is motivated through the initial selection of a preferred activity. The appropriate response to this activity is given positive reinforcement.
Programmed instruction Major Student Activity Teacher Teaching Uses and Value Drawbacks andCharacteristics Grouping Activity Resources DefectsLinear An Student is Responsi Program Industry Promotesprogramme individu responsible ble for -med and military superficiald al for selecting materials continue activity.instruction activity; responding program may be the use ofallows whereas to each med presente programmestudents to a group stimulus materials d in dprogress at may be through and printed instruction;their own using checking a monitorin forms or a carefullypace. the response or g student through designed same answering progress a program is program and through compute effective , they attending to the r when used may positive material. program. approriately progres reinforcers . s provided by through correct
SEVEN of the 14 TeachingModels 7. Practice and Drill Models that rely on practice. Used extensively to enable students to acquire a skill or a proficiency in doing some overt act.
Practice and Drill Major Student Teacher Teaching Uses and DrawbacksCharacteristi Grouping Activity Activity Resources Value and cs DefectsThere is May be There is Teachers Models, May be Ifa one in complete explains equipment, used to overuserepeated unison or student and chalkboard, develop a d,, it canperfor- by one or involveme demonstrat films, desirable becomemance of more nt with es the videotapes, skill, stultifyina class perfor- nature of recordings, gradually g andlearning members mance of the act and machines, acquiring boring.act until of any overt acts. proper ways tools, proficienca desired group of doing it, materials y.level of size. supervise, needed for theskill is observe, performance,attained. and computers, evaluate. and communicatio n systems are
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