The Protestant Reformation

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Intro to the Protestant Reformation for World History

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The Protestant Reformation

  1. 1. THE PROTESTANTREFORMATIONA break from tradition and Catholicism
  2. 2. Trouble Brewing Either with them or against them  Heretics and the Inquisition Shifts in priorities  Thearts  Defending Papal States Celibacy? Corruption  Especially in Germanic Areas John Wycliffe John Huss
  3. 3. When the timing is right… The Printing Press  By 1500, 250 cities printing 9-10 million books  Erasmus a harsh critic  People begin reading the Bible on their own
  4. 4. Martin Luther  Was a devout Catholic, served as a monk, tried to continually bring himself closer to God  Struggled with his faith  Puzzled and inspired by “The just shall live by faith”  Angered by Johann Tetzelhttp://www.luthertour.com/
  5. 5. Johann Tetzel  Sale of Indulgences  “Heaven Insurance” for you and your loved ones – dead or alive!  “No sooner than the coffer ring, than a soul from purgatory doth spring”http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/02/13/opinion/13indulgences.large.jpg
  6. 6. The 95 Theses Nails his Ninety-five Theses to http://media- cdn.tripadvisor.c the door of the Castle Church in om/media/photo- s/01/63/41/87/95 Wittenberg, Germany on All -thesis-of-martin- luther.jpg Hallows Eve, 1517  Salvation by faith alone; he opposed the Catholic Church’s beliefs in penance and good works  Bible is the only authority for Christian life; Pope is a false authority  Priesthood of all believers – each person should have an individual relationship with God and should read/interpret the Bible for him/herself  All people are equal in the eyes of God http://www.the-highway.com/95Theses.gif
  7. 7. Luther’s ideas diffuse quickly Wrote many books, essays, and letters – which are quickly printed and spread throughout Luther was not easily silenced – he ideas shake Europe He did not originally intend to start an entire new branch of Christianity
  8. 8. Pope Leo X  Giovanni de Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent  Pope Leo X issues a Papal Bull June 15,1520 and threatens to excommunicate Luther unless he recanted  Luther and his students at the University of Witten berg burned the Papal Bull in a bonfire  Pope excommunicates Lutherhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Cardinal_Giovanni_de%27_Medici.jpg
  9. 9. Who do you think said this? “A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong…I will proceed against him as a notorious heretic”
  10. 10.  Charles V – HRE 1521 – summons Luther to the Imperial Diet at Worms to stand trial Refuses to recant his ideas,  “Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason…my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. Amen.” Charles V replies –  “A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong…I will proceed against him as a notorious heretic” Charles V issues Edict of Worms – declaring Luther an outlaw and heretic https://libwebspace.library.cmu.edu:4430/posner/sp09 /subcontents//images/charlesv%203_4.jpg
  11. 11.  Frederick the Wise – German prince of Saxony, protects Luther in his castle for the first year after the Diet of Worms  Spendsthe year translating the New Testament into German Luther’s ideas were practiced – priests began leading worship in German, calling themselves “ministers” People give up on trying to reform the Catholic Church and become a group known as Lutherans
  12. 12.  Group of princes loyal to the Pope join forces and create an alliance against Luther’s ideas The princes who support Luther sign a statement protesting this alliance – become known as the Protestants
  13. 13. Women and the Reformation Which idea do you think appealed to women the most?  Concept of equality in God’s eyes Protestant teachings emphasized more compassionate marriages  More compassionate  Increased education for women  More grounds for divorce if a husband violated his vows During the early years, women were major writers and preachers  As Protestant groups become more formal, women’s opportunities decrease

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