THE PROTESTANTREFORMATIONA break from tradition and Catholicism
Trouble Brewing Either with them or against them Heretics and the Inquisition Shifts in priorities Thearts Defending Papal States Celibacy? Corruption Especially in Germanic Areas John Wycliffe John Huss
When the timing is right… The Printing Press By 1500, 250 cities printing 9-10 million books Erasmus a harsh critic People begin reading the Bible on their own
Martin Luther Was a devout Catholic, served as a monk, tried to continually bring himself closer to God Struggled with his faith Puzzled and inspired by “The just shall live by faith” Angered by Johann Tetzelhttp://www.luthertour.com/
Johann Tetzel Sale of Indulgences “Heaven Insurance” for you and your loved ones – dead or alive! “No sooner than the coffer ring, than a soul from purgatory doth spring”http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/02/13/opinion/13indulgences.large.jpg
The 95 Theses Nails his Ninety-five Theses to http://media- cdn.tripadvisor.c the door of the Castle Church in om/media/photo- s/01/63/41/87/95 Wittenberg, Germany on All -thesis-of-martin- luther.jpg Hallows Eve, 1517 Salvation by faith alone; he opposed the Catholic Church’s beliefs in penance and good works Bible is the only authority for Christian life; Pope is a false authority Priesthood of all believers – each person should have an individual relationship with God and should read/interpret the Bible for him/herself All people are equal in the eyes of God http://www.the-highway.com/95Theses.gif
Luther’s ideas diffuse quickly Wrote many books, essays, and letters – which are quickly printed and spread throughout Luther was not easily silenced – he ideas shake Europe He did not originally intend to start an entire new branch of Christianity
Pope Leo X Giovanni de Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent Pope Leo X issues a Papal Bull June 15,1520 and threatens to excommunicate Luther unless he recanted Luther and his students at the University of Witten berg burned the Papal Bull in a bonfire Pope excommunicates Lutherhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Cardinal_Giovanni_de%27_Medici.jpg
Who do you think said this? “A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong…I will proceed against him as a notorious heretic”
Charles V – HRE 1521 – summons Luther to the Imperial Diet at Worms to stand trial Refuses to recant his ideas, “Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason…my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. Amen.” Charles V replies – “A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong…I will proceed against him as a notorious heretic” Charles V issues Edict of Worms – declaring Luther an outlaw and heretic https://libwebspace.library.cmu.edu:4430/posner/sp09 /subcontents//images/charlesv%203_4.jpg
Frederick the Wise – German prince of Saxony, protects Luther in his castle for the first year after the Diet of Worms Spendsthe year translating the New Testament into German Luther’s ideas were practiced – priests began leading worship in German, calling themselves “ministers” People give up on trying to reform the Catholic Church and become a group known as Lutherans
Group of princes loyal to the Pope join forces and create an alliance against Luther’s ideas The princes who support Luther sign a statement protesting this alliance – become known as the Protestants
Women and the Reformation Which idea do you think appealed to women the most? Concept of equality in God’s eyes Protestant teachings emphasized more compassionate marriages More compassionate Increased education for women More grounds for divorce if a husband violated his vows During the early years, women were major writers and preachers As Protestant groups become more formal, women’s opportunities decrease
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