CHAPTER 11:THE PROTESTANTREFORMATIONA break from tradition and Catholicism
Trouble Brewing   Either with them or against them     Heretics   and the Inquisition   Shifts in priorities     Thear...
When the timing is right…   The Printing Press     By 1500, 250 cities printing 9-10 million books     Erasmus a harsh ...
Martin Luther                                Was a devout Catholic, served as a                                 monk, tri...
Johann Tetzel                                                                   Sale of Indulgences                      ...
The 95 Theses   Nails his Ninety-five Theses to                                                  http://media-           ...
Luther’s ideas diffuse quickly   Wrote many books, essays, and letters – which    are quickly printed and spread througho...
Pope Leo X                                                      Giovanni de Medici, son of                               ...
Who do you think said this?   “A single friar who goes counter to    all Christianity for a thousand years    must be wro...
   Charles V – HRE   1521 – summons Luther to the Imperial Diet at    Worms to stand trial   Refuses to recant his idea...
   Frederick the Wise – German prince of Saxony,    protects Luther in his castle for the first year after    the Diet of...
   Group of princes loyal to the Pope join forces and    create an alliance against Luther’s ideas   The princes who sup...
Spreading Luther’s Ideas   Luther becomes friends with Erasmus who refused to    fully support the Reformation   Rising ...
Spreading Ideas, cont.   European rulers want to reduce the influence of the Church and the    HRE   Princes continue to...
Women and the Reformation   Which idea do you think appealed to women the most?     Concept of equality in God’s eyes  ...
Religious Warfare   Charles V decides to fight against the Protestants   Diet at Augsburg 1530 – meeting of the princes ...
Charles is worn out   Gave Spain (including land in the Americas, part of    Italy, and the Netherlands, to his son Phili...
The Reformation Ripple…   For each of the following construct a chart that    addresses:     Who,   where, and when    ...
Reformation Skits   Please write a script for a skit that demonstrates the    dialogue for 2-4 Protestant Reformation    ...
Ulrich Zwingli   First major reformer to follow Luther    (no denomination though)   Preached in Zurich, ideas spread   ...
John Calvin                                        The Elect                                        Predestination      ...
John Knox   Inspired by Calvin   Brings Protestantism to    Scotland   Presbyters   Leads a coup d’etat to    overthro...
Henry VIII   Overview: Six Wives     Catherine   of Aragon – divorced (1533)         Daughter - Mary     Anne   Boleyn...
The Church of England   Requested divorce from Pope Clement VII     Asks Cardinal Wolsey for the same, fires him     Ch...
   William Tyndale – new English version of the Bible   Henry VIII     Closed    Catholic monasteries and other church ...
http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Docu      The Kids                              ments/king_edwardVI_gallery.htm   Edward VI ...
Elizabeth I   Converts England back to Protestantism – for good.   Church of England     39   Articles – define Anglica...
The Spread of Protestantismhttp://wps.ablongman.com/long_longman_lwcdemo_1/23/5988/1533007.cw/index.html
Protestant Work Ethic   Protestant Bourgeoisie – middle class (especially in the North) tended to    react against author...
   Don Quixote – Miguel de Cervantes   William Shakespeare
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The Protestant Reformation

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The Protestant Reformation

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11:THE PROTESTANTREFORMATIONA break from tradition and Catholicism
  2. 2. Trouble Brewing Either with them or against them  Heretics and the Inquisition Shifts in priorities  Thearts  Defending Papal States Celibacy? Corruption  Especially in Germanic Areas John Wycliffe John Huss
  3. 3. When the timing is right… The Printing Press  By 1500, 250 cities printing 9-10 million books  Erasmus a harsh critic  People begin reading the Bible on their own
  4. 4. Martin Luther  Was a devout Catholic, served as a monk, tried to continually bring himself closer to God  Struggled with his faith  Puzzled and inspired by “The just shall live by faith”  Angered by Johann Tetzelhttp://www.luthertour.com/
  5. 5. Johann Tetzel  Sale of Indulgences  “Heaven Insurance” for you and your loved ones – dead or alive!  “No sooner than the coffer ring, than a soul from purgatory doth spring”http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/02/13/opinion/13indulgences.large.jpg
  6. 6. The 95 Theses Nails his Ninety-five Theses to http://media- cdn.tripadvisor.c the door of the Castle Church in om/media/photo- s/01/63/41/87/95 Wittenberg, Germany on All -thesis-of-martin- luther.jpg Hallows Eve, 1517  Salvation by faith alone; he opposed the Catholic Church’s beliefs in penance and good works  Bible is the only authority for Christian life; Pope is a false authority  Priesthood of all believers – each person should have an individual relationship with God and should read/interpret the Bible for him/herself  All people are equal in the eyes of God http://www.the-highway.com/95Theses.gif
  7. 7. Luther’s ideas diffuse quickly Wrote many books, essays, and letters – which are quickly printed and spread throughout Luther was not easily silenced – he ideas shake Europe He did not originally intend to start an entire new branch of Christianity
  8. 8. Pope Leo X  Giovanni de Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent  Pope Leo X issues a Papal Bull June 15,1520 and threatens to excommunicate Luther unless he recanted  Luther and his students at the University of Witten berg burned the Papal Bull in a bonfire  Pope excommunicates Lutherhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Cardinal_Giovanni_de%27_Medici.jpg
  9. 9. Who do you think said this? “A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong…I will proceed against him as a notorious heretic”
  10. 10.  Charles V – HRE 1521 – summons Luther to the Imperial Diet at Worms to stand trial Refuses to recant his ideas,  “Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason…my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. Amen.” Charles V replies –  “A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong…I will proceed against him as a notorious heretic” Charles V issues Edict of Worms – declaring Luther an outlaw and heretic https://libwebspace.library.cmu.edu:4430/posner/sp09 /subcontents//images/charlesv%203_4.jpg
  11. 11.  Frederick the Wise – German prince of Saxony, protects Luther in his castle for the first year after the Diet of Worms  Spendsthe year translating the New Testament into German Luther’s ideas were practiced – priests began leading worship in German, calling themselves “ministers” People give up on trying to reform the Catholic Church and become a group known as Lutherans
  12. 12.  Group of princes loyal to the Pope join forces and create an alliance against Luther’s ideas The princes who support Luther sign a statement protesting this alliance – become known as the Protestants
  13. 13. Spreading Luther’s Ideas Luther becomes friends with Erasmus who refused to fully support the Reformation Rising humanistic influences lead people to emphasize the role man should play in religion Peasants embrace the ideas and Luther’s criticisms of monastic landowners; rebel and solicit Luther’s support; demand release from serfdom  Writes“Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants” to the nobles; denounces peasants  Why?  He needs the princes support for Protestantism to survive
  14. 14. Spreading Ideas, cont. European rulers want to reduce the influence of the Church and the HRE Princes continue to protect Luther from the Catholics  What is in it for the princes?  Want to weaken the HRE. Want as much power as possible. Diet of Speyer 1526  Emperor (distracted) agrees that each German territory was free to enforce the Edict of Worms against Luther  Gives the German princes territorial sovereignty in religious matters  Buys the Reformation concepts to take hold in Germany and Switzerland
  15. 15. Women and the Reformation Which idea do you think appealed to women the most?  Concept of equality in God’s eyes Protestant teachings emphasized more compassionate marriages  More compassionate  Increased education for women  More grounds for divorce if a husband violated his vows During the early years, women were major writers and preachers  As Protestant groups become more formal, women’s opportunities decrease
  16. 16. Religious Warfare Charles V decides to fight against the Protestants Diet at Augsburg 1530 – meeting of the princes  Diet ended with a blunt order to revert Lutherans to Catholicism  Augsburg Confession –Protestants enter a defensive alliance called the Schmalkaldic League  Schmalkaldic Articles – Luther  League reaches a stalemate with Charles V  1547 – Charles V unleashes the military on the Protestants, crush the Schmalkaldic League, imperial law mandates Protestants reconvert  Peace of Augsburg 1552 – allows each German ruler to decide what their region’s religion will be  Latin phrase “cuius regio, eius religo” – he who rules establishes religion  Technically only allows Lutheranism or Catholicism  Ecclesiastical reservation added – prevents converters from taking church lands with them
  17. 17. Charles is worn out Gave Spain (including land in the Americas, part of Italy, and the Netherlands, to his son Philip II Holy Roman Empire to Ferdinand Retires to a monastery in Spain before dying in 1558
  18. 18. The Reformation Ripple… For each of the following construct a chart that addresses:  Who, where, and when  What they believed  Significance in the Protestant Reformation and beyond  Zwingli  John Calvin  Anabaptists  John Knox  Henry VIII
  19. 19. Reformation Skits Please write a script for a skit that demonstrates the dialogue for 2-4 Protestant Reformation theologians (depends on group size) and one political figure.  You may choose the setting and the purpose of the meeting/dialogue, but must have a dialogue that demonstrates an understanding of the different reformation ideas and challenges.  Each dialogue should last 4-5 minutes.  Everyone must have a speaking part. 
  20. 20. Ulrich Zwingli First major reformer to follow Luther (no denomination though) Preached in Zurich, ideas spread outward to Switzerland and S. Germany “community discipline” Churches become more “puritanical” Transubstantiation? Consubstantiation? Symbolic? http://www.answersingenesis.org/assets/images/articles/am/v2/n4/reform_ulric h_zwingli.jpg
  21. 21. John Calvin  The Elect  Predestination  City of Saints – set up a model gov’t in Geneva  Inspires Puritanismhttp://www.davepohl.com/calvin.gif
  22. 22. John Knox Inspired by Calvin Brings Protestantism to Scotland Presbyters Leads a coup d’etat to overthrow Mary Stuart Nationalizes Calvinism http://www.rampantscotland.com/colour/graphics/knox_john_edinburgh01665s.jpg
  23. 23. Henry VIII Overview: Six Wives  Catherine of Aragon – divorced (1533)  Daughter - Mary  Anne Boleyn – beheaded (unjustly accused of adultery)  Daughter – Elizabeth  Jane Seymour – died (12 days after giving birth)  Son - Edward  Anne of Cleves – divorced  Catherine Howard – beheaded (actual adultery)  Catherine Parr - survived
  24. 24. The Church of England Requested divorce from Pope Clement VII  Asks Cardinal Wolsey for the same, fires him  Charles V (Cath. Of Aragon’s nephew) marched into Rome and held the Pope hostage to prevent divorce  Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer will annul the marriage Reformation Parliament  Asks them to strip the Pope’s power in England  Legalize Henry’s divorce, Pope not supposed to interfere Act of Supremacy 1534  Declares King as the head of England’s Church
  25. 25.  William Tyndale – new English version of the Bible Henry VIII  Closed Catholic monasteries and other church lands  Sells the land for profit  Church of England (Anglican or Episcopal)  “Six Articles” affirm CofE doctrines  celibacy, literal confession etc (this will change)
  26. 26. http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Docu The Kids ments/king_edwardVI_gallery.htm Edward VI  crowned at 9  reigned for six years  1st Protestant King Mary – Bloody Mary  Reigned five years  M. Felipe II of Spain http://englishhistory.net/tudor/monarc hs/elizsister.jpg  Very Catholic  Had over 300 murdered http://englishhistory.net/tudor/eliz1- ermine.jpg Elizabeth – The Virgin Queen
  27. 27. Elizabeth I Converts England back to Protestantism – for good. Church of England  39 Articles – define Anglican doctrine  Move away from some traditional Catholic practices  (literal confession, Latin, allegiance to the Pope, clerical celibacy, etc)  Include elements of Protestantism  Book of Common Prayer  Created under Edward VI  Officialized under Elizabeth I
  28. 28. The Spread of Protestantismhttp://wps.ablongman.com/long_longman_lwcdemo_1/23/5988/1533007.cw/index.html
  29. 29. Protestant Work Ethic Protestant Bourgeoisie – middle class (especially in the North) tended to react against authority (like the Church and the Nobility); thus, they usually chose to become Protestant A new value system develops  Every man (rich or poor) can serve God in his job  Labor and thrift are Godly virtues  Profits are permissible if used to benefit society and to glorify God Results?  Explosion of capitalism from Dutch, English, and Swiss Protestants  Capitalism = economy based on competition and individual acheivement “Protestant Work Ethic”
  30. 30.  Don Quixote – Miguel de Cervantes William Shakespeare

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