The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era


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French Revolution

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The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era

  1. 1. Chapter 19 – The French Revolution
  2. 2. The Estates• First Estate – clergy Population in France• Second Estate – 1st 0.50% Estate noble families 2nd 1.50% Estate• Third Estate – 3rd everyone else Estate – bourgeoisie – peasant farmers – **Overwhelming majority 98%
  3. 3. Louis XVI and the Estates General • First Estate – clergy • Second Estate – noble families • Third Estate – everyone else – bourgeoisie – peasant farmers – **Overwhelming majority
  4. 4. • Louis XVI – Bourbon dynasty – Weak, indecisive – incompetent• Marie Antoinette – Vain, unintelligent – Austrian – “Let them eat cake!”
  5. 5. Tennis CourtOath•Angered, 3rd Estatedeclares themselvesa National Assemblyon June 17, 1789•They meet on anearby tennis courtand vow to remainuntil a Constitutionwas established(by Jacques LouisDavid)
  6. 6. • Kings nervous• asks 1st and 2nd estate to join them and write a constitution together
  7. 7. No Dice • Storming of the Bastille • July 14, 1789 • peasants sweep through and attack nobility and feudal institutions
  8. 8. The Declaration of the Rights of Man • August – National Assembly writes a document to recognize natural rights, include a lot of Rousseau • widely copied and distributed across Europe • National Assembly abolishes the fedual system and declares freedom of worship, breaking from the Cath Ch.
  9. 9. • King and his family taken to Paris so the 3rd Estate Revolutionaries can keep him out of the way• National Assembly establishes the nation- state as the source of all sovereignty or political authority
  10. 10. • National Assembly ratified a new constitution• Sets up constitutional monarchy – Issues? Those who wanted to abolish the monarchy felt cheated, those who wanted to retain the feudal structure felt betrayed – Not everyone is happy.
  11. 11. • Marie Antionette – sister of the Emperor of Austria• Austria and Prussia invade France• French revolutionaries hold them back• French leaders meet, new constitution• Convention – new ruling body – abolished monarchy, proclaimed France a republic
  12. 12. Dun, dun, dun….• Jacobins lead the Convention• Imprison royal family• Behead king for treason in 1793
  13. 13. Marie is killed in October
  14. 14. Reign of Terror • Prussia and Austria regroup • Britain and Spain join in • Convention worried about foreign threats • Throw out constitution, AGAIN, • Committee of Public Safety – led by Maximilien Robespierre – an all-powerful enforcer of the revolution – Murders any with antirevolutionary tendanciesGuillotine: between 18,000 and 40,000 peoplewere executed during the Reign of Terror
  15. 15. Robespierre • Controls anarchy • Beheads tens of thousands of French citizens • Creates strong national military
  16. 16. Symbols of France • Tricolor – red, white, blue • Le Marsellaise – national anthem • Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite • Viva la nation! – Long live the nation!
  17. 17. • Guillotine for Robespierre• New constitution, 1795• Directory in charge (five man gvt) – builds up the military
  18. 18. Napoleon • Napoleon Bonaparte overthrows the Directory in 1799 – Legitimizes actions with popular vote – Declares himself the First Consul under the new constitution – (…the FOURTH new constitution…)
  19. 19. Improving life• Domestic Reforms – Agriculture, infrastructure, and public education – Works things out with the Cath. Ch.• Napoleonic Codes – 1804 – recognized equality of French citizens – Big step for human rights law – But not very good for women or children
  20. 20. Emperor• Crowns himself emperor in 1804• Literally crowns himself, shows he owes his throne to no one but himself
  21. 21. • Building an Empire Valued rapid movements and effective use of large armies• New plan for every battle• Presence “worth 40,000 troops”• The Grand Empire – – annexes areas of France, the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany• Dissolves the HRE – Creates 38-member Confederation of the Rhine• Cuts Prussia in half; turns old Poland into the Duchy of Warsaw• Controls Europe by placing relatives and friends on thrones of conquered nations
  22. 22. • Sold Louisiana land to the USA – 1. Money to fund his army – 2. So Britain couldn’t access the Mississippi• Failed to acquire Britain – Battle of Trafalgar • Led by Br. Admiral Horatio Nelson • Napoleon turns his sights to Russia
  23. 23. Effects of Nationalism • France has new found sense of nationalism • Nationalism – tremendous pride and devotion in and to your country • But, nationalism in conquered countries inspires revolts against France, too • Spain loses holdings in the Americas b/c colonies revolt against Spain’s weakened control
  24. 24. Russia• In 1812 Napoleon invades Russia with 600,000 French soldiers• Scorched Earth Policy• General Winter – Gives up in October – Only 100,000 survive
  25. 25. Coalition Against Napoleon • Russia, Britain, Austria, Sweden and Prussia become allies to take out Napoleon • 1813 – Battle of the Nations at Leipzig – Napoleon is defeated
  26. 26. Exiled• Napoleon abdicated• Victors exile him to Elba• Recognize Louis XVIII as king of France (brother of Louis XVI) – Restoration not a smooth one – King accepts Napoleonic Code and honors land settlements – But, people nervous and fear oppression
  27. 27. He returns!• Napoleon escapes island exile and returns!• Soldiers flock to him• Citizens cheer, king flees,• March 1815, Napoleon reenters Paris
  28. 28. The Final Showdown• June 18, 1815 opposing armies meet head to head in Waterloo, Belgium• Br Duke of Wellington; Pr. General Blucher – Lead the attack and crush France (Wellington at Waterloo)
  29. 29. This time it really is the end…– Napoleon forced to abdicate again– Exiled on St. Helena…no more Napoleon
  30. 30. Fixing Europe• The Congress of Vienna – 1814 to 1815• The principal negotiators were:• Austria -- Prince Klemons von Metternich• Prussia -- King Frederick William III• Russia -- Czar Alexander I• Great Britain -- Castlereagh• France -- Prince Talleyrand
  31. 31. Work to restore order to Europe Congress of Vienna – Recognize balance of power • 5 nation-states • Austria, Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, and France – Gain power at expense of smaller states • Austria took some Italian territories • Russia took most of Poland • Britain added territories in Asia and the W. Hemisphere • Prussia took Rhine River land in W. Germany • Create Kingdom of Netherlands by joining Belgium and Luxembourg together with Holland
  32. 32. Congress of Vienna cont.• Return to Status Quo – Restored old monarchies of Europe • Bourbons on throne in France and Spain• Holy Roman Empire – Reduced from 300+ independent states to 39 separate German states• Established a stable Europe which tried to prevent war• Very successful; peace in Europe for the next 100 years• Conservative; Tried to prevent domestic change in Europe
  33. 33. Fini