The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era
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The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era

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French Revolution

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The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 19 – The French Revolution
  • The Estates• First Estate – clergy Population in France• Second Estate – 1st 0.50% Estate noble families 2nd 1.50% Estate• Third Estate – 3rd everyone else Estate – bourgeoisie – peasant farmers – **Overwhelming majority 98%
  • Louis XVI and the Estates General • First Estate – clergy • Second Estate – noble families • Third Estate – everyone else – bourgeoisie – peasant farmers – **Overwhelming majority
  • • Louis XVI – Bourbon dynasty – Weak, indecisive – incompetent• Marie Antoinette – Vain, unintelligent – Austrian – “Let them eat cake!”
  • Tennis CourtOath•Angered, 3rd Estatedeclares themselvesa National Assemblyon June 17, 1789•They meet on anearby tennis courtand vow to remainuntil a Constitutionwas established(by Jacques LouisDavid)
  • • Kings nervous• asks 1st and 2nd estate to join them and write a constitution together
  • No Dice • Storming of the Bastille • July 14, 1789 • peasants sweep through and attack nobility and feudal institutions
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man • August – National Assembly writes a document to recognize natural rights, include a lot of Rousseau • widely copied and distributed across Europe • National Assembly abolishes the fedual system and declares freedom of worship, breaking from the Cath Ch.
  • • King and his family taken to Paris so the 3rd Estate Revolutionaries can keep him out of the way• National Assembly establishes the nation- state as the source of all sovereignty or political authority
  • • National Assembly ratified a new constitution• Sets up constitutional monarchy – Issues? Those who wanted to abolish the monarchy felt cheated, those who wanted to retain the feudal structure felt betrayed – Not everyone is happy.
  • • Marie Antionette – sister of the Emperor of Austria• Austria and Prussia invade France• French revolutionaries hold them back• French leaders meet, new constitution• Convention – new ruling body – abolished monarchy, proclaimed France a republic
  • Dun, dun, dun….• Jacobins lead the Convention• Imprison royal family• Behead king for treason in 1793
  • Marie is killed in October
  • Reign of Terror • Prussia and Austria regroup • Britain and Spain join in • Convention worried about foreign threats • Throw out constitution, AGAIN, • Committee of Public Safety – led by Maximilien Robespierre – an all-powerful enforcer of the revolution – Murders any with antirevolutionary tendanciesGuillotine: between 18,000 and 40,000 peoplewere executed during the Reign of Terror
  • Robespierre • Controls anarchy • Beheads tens of thousands of French citizens • Creates strong national military
  • Symbols of France • Tricolor – red, white, blue • Le Marsellaise – national anthem • Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite • Viva la nation! – Long live the nation!
  • • Guillotine for Robespierre• New constitution, 1795• Directory in charge (five man gvt) – builds up the military
  • Napoleon • Napoleon Bonaparte overthrows the Directory in 1799 – Legitimizes actions with popular vote – Declares himself the First Consul under the new constitution – (…the FOURTH new constitution…)
  • Improving life• Domestic Reforms – Agriculture, infrastructure, and public education – Works things out with the Cath. Ch.• Napoleonic Codes – 1804 – recognized equality of French citizens – Big step for human rights law – But not very good for women or children
  • Emperor• Crowns himself emperor in 1804• Literally crowns himself, shows he owes his throne to no one but himself
  • • Building an Empire Valued rapid movements and effective use of large armies• New plan for every battle• Presence “worth 40,000 troops”• The Grand Empire – – annexes areas of France, the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany• Dissolves the HRE – Creates 38-member Confederation of the Rhine• Cuts Prussia in half; turns old Poland into the Duchy of Warsaw• Controls Europe by placing relatives and friends on thrones of conquered nations
  • • Sold Louisiana land to the USA – 1. Money to fund his army – 2. So Britain couldn’t access the Mississippi• Failed to acquire Britain – Battle of Trafalgar • Led by Br. Admiral Horatio Nelson • Napoleon turns his sights to Russia
  • Effects of Nationalism • France has new found sense of nationalism • Nationalism – tremendous pride and devotion in and to your country • But, nationalism in conquered countries inspires revolts against France, too • Spain loses holdings in the Americas b/c colonies revolt against Spain’s weakened control
  • Russia• In 1812 Napoleon invades Russia with 600,000 French soldiers• Scorched Earth Policy• General Winter – Gives up in October – Only 100,000 survive
  • Coalition Against Napoleon • Russia, Britain, Austria, Sweden and Prussia become allies to take out Napoleon • 1813 – Battle of the Nations at Leipzig – Napoleon is defeated
  • Exiled• Napoleon abdicated• Victors exile him to Elba• Recognize Louis XVIII as king of France (brother of Louis XVI) – Restoration not a smooth one – King accepts Napoleonic Code and honors land settlements – But, people nervous and fear oppression
  • He returns!• Napoleon escapes island exile and returns!• Soldiers flock to him• Citizens cheer, king flees,• March 1815, Napoleon reenters Paris
  • The Final Showdown• June 18, 1815 opposing armies meet head to head in Waterloo, Belgium• Br Duke of Wellington; Pr. General Blucher – Lead the attack and crush France (Wellington at Waterloo)
  • This time it really is the end…– Napoleon forced to abdicate again– Exiled on St. Helena…no more Napoleon
  • Fixing Europe• The Congress of Vienna – 1814 to 1815• The principal negotiators were:• Austria -- Prince Klemons von Metternich• Prussia -- King Frederick William III• Russia -- Czar Alexander I• Great Britain -- Castlereagh• France -- Prince Talleyrand
  • Work to restore order to Europe Congress of Vienna – Recognize balance of power • 5 nation-states • Austria, Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, and France – Gain power at expense of smaller states • Austria took some Italian territories • Russia took most of Poland • Britain added territories in Asia and the W. Hemisphere • Prussia took Rhine River land in W. Germany • Create Kingdom of Netherlands by joining Belgium and Luxembourg together with Holland
  • Congress of Vienna cont.• Return to Status Quo – Restored old monarchies of Europe • Bourbons on throne in France and Spain• Holy Roman Empire – Reduced from 300+ independent states to 39 separate German states• Established a stable Europe which tried to prevent war• Very successful; peace in Europe for the next 100 years• Conservative; Tried to prevent domestic change in Europe
  • Fini