The French
Revolution
Old Regime

• First Estate

• 1% of population
• Mostly priests w/ many privileges

• Second Estate
• 2% of population
• N...
Discontent Grows
• 3rd estate began growing angry
with their social position
• Bourgeoisie wanted more
political power
• G...
Uniting the Estates
• Louis XVI tried to tax the
nobility but they refused
• In May 1789 he called an
Estates-General to h...
National Assembly
(1789-1791)

• 3rd Estate wanted to meet as a
delegation to best represent
people
• They were locked out...
THE GREAT FEAR
• Assembly mobs stormed the
Bastille on July 14th and freed
prisoners
• Wave of violence throughout
the cou...
End of the Old Order
• In August 1789, nobles voted to
lose power
• Declaration of the Rights of Man
• Louis XVI refused t...
Continued Unrest &
Violence

• Unrest on the Legislative Assembly
(Radicals, Moderates, Conservatives)
• Unrest outside th...
National Convention
Reforms (Sep. 1792-1795)
• Ended monarchy and formed a
republic
• Controlled by Radical Jacobins
• Imp...
Revolution
Spreads
• Radicals won control of the
National Convention
• Wanted to end monarchies
everywhere and expand Fran...
Reign of Terror
• July 1793-July 1794
• To stop the civil war in France,
Robespierre’s Committee of
Public Safety executed...
The Directory (1795-1799)
• In 1795, the National Convention
had lost all support
• A new constitution created the
Directo...
Rise of
Napoleon
• Napoleon Bonaparte was a
skilled general
• Gained fame by defeating the
Austrians and winning land for
...
Napoleon’s Rule
• Established a dictatorship in
1799
• Brought order to education and
banking systems
• Passed Napoleonic ...
Napoleon’s Empire
• By 1812, Napoleon controlled
land all the way to Russia
• Continental System
• Peninsular War
• Angry ...
Napoleon’s Legacy
• Though he was a dictator, he
spread Enlightenment ideas of
equality, toleration and
economic reform
• ...
Peace in Europe
Congress of Vienna
1814-1815
• Met in 1814 after 25 years of war
• Containment, legitimacy, balance
of power
• Restored bo...
Forces change Europe
• Reactionists hoped to stop the
spread of liberalism
• Alliances formed to prevent
spread of nationa...
Chapter 22 the french revolution
Chapter 22 the french revolution
Chapter 22 the french revolution
Chapter 22 the french revolution
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Chapter 22 the french revolution

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Chapter 22 the french revolution

  1. 1. The French Revolution
  2. 2. Old Regime • First Estate • 1% of population • Mostly priests w/ many privileges • Second Estate • 2% of population • Nobles who owned 25% of land • Had many privileges as well • Third Estate • 97% of population • Peasants, artists, and bourgeoisie
  3. 3. Discontent Grows • 3rd estate began growing angry with their social position • Bourgeoisie wanted more political power • Growing population put strain on resources and raised prices • Previous kings had put nation into severe debt (XIV & XV) • Overseas conflicts (Am. Rev.)
  4. 4. Uniting the Estates • Louis XVI tried to tax the nobility but they refused • In May 1789 he called an Estates-General to have them implement taxes • Nobles intended to use the council to weaken the monarchy
  5. 5. National Assembly (1789-1791) • 3rd Estate wanted to meet as a delegation to best represent people • They were locked out, so they created the National Assembly • Wanting equality, the Assembly had heated debates and wanted to write a constitution (Tennis Court Oath)
  6. 6. THE GREAT FEAR • Assembly mobs stormed the Bastille on July 14th and freed prisoners • Wave of violence throughout the country side followed, with many nobles being driven from their land
  7. 7. End of the Old Order • In August 1789, nobles voted to lose power • Declaration of the Rights of Man • Louis XVI refused to accept these changes • Louis was forced to move to Paris • 1791 Constitution limited monarchy and created a unicameral legislature
  8. 8. Continued Unrest & Violence • Unrest on the Legislative Assembly (Radicals, Moderates, Conservatives) • Unrest outside the Assembly • Émigrés & Sans-Culottes • King & Queen failed to escape to Austria in June 1791 • Fearing the reinstatement of Louis, war was declared on Austria and Prussia in April 1792 and Louis XVI was arrested (September Massacres)
  9. 9. National Convention Reforms (Sep. 1792-1795) • Ended monarchy and formed a republic • Controlled by Radical Jacobins • Implemented the metric system • Beheaded Louis XVI to legitimize the republic in January 1793
  10. 10. Revolution Spreads • Radicals won control of the National Convention • Wanted to end monarchies everywhere and expand France • Monarchs of Europe became allies • France adopted conscription to build up the army, angers many
  11. 11. Reign of Terror • July 1793-July 1794 • To stop the civil war in France, Robespierre’s Committee of Public Safety executed “traitors” (40,000) • Robespierre’s execution ended the “Terror” but also Jacobin power
  12. 12. The Directory (1795-1799) • In 1795, the National Convention had lost all support • A new constitution created the Directory, 2-house legislature • Continued food shortages and inflation doomed the Directory • People began to look for one strong leader once again
  13. 13. Rise of Napoleon • Napoleon Bonaparte was a skilled general • Gained fame by defeating the Austrians and winning land for France • He was popular, so when in Paris, he led a coup d´état
  14. 14. Napoleon’s Rule • Established a dictatorship in 1799 • Brought order to education and banking systems • Passed Napoleonic Code of laws • Made peace with the Catholic Church (Concordat of 1801)
  15. 15. Napoleon’s Empire • By 1812, Napoleon controlled land all the way to Russia • Continental System • Peninsular War • Angry at Russia, Napoleon attacked with 420,000 troops • Defeat eroded Napoleon’s power
  16. 16. Napoleon’s Legacy • Though he was a dictator, he spread Enlightenment ideas of equality, toleration and economic reform • Nationalism • Ended Holy Roman Empire • Louisiana Purchase allowed America to become a world Power
  17. 17. Peace in Europe
  18. 18. Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 • Met in 1814 after 25 years of war • Containment, legitimacy, balance of power • Restored boundaries to 1792 areas • Restored monarchies in France, Spain, & Portugal • Isolated France with buffer states
  19. 19. Forces change Europe • Reactionists hoped to stop the spread of liberalism • Alliances formed to prevent spread of nationalism and democracy • Concert of Europe met to avoid any more disturbances or conflicts

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