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Napoleon not only impacted the history of France but created the situation that contribute to World War I

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  1. 1. Section 18.4 NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
  2. 2. A. MAIN IDEAS
  3. 3. • from Corsica • of minor nobility • at age 9 was sent to France to be trained for a military career • was 20 when the French Revolution began • favored Jacobin republicanism BACKGROUND
  4. 4. • promoted to brigadier general after his involvement in the capture of Toulon from the British • captured northern Italy from the Austrians • unsuccessfully invaded Egypt • helped overthrow the Directory and set up the three- man Consulate • took the title of First Consul • had himself named consul for life • soon crowned himself as emperor EARLY CAREER
  5. 5. • annexed new land to France: Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of Italy and Germany • abolished the Holy Roman Empire • cut the Prussian empire in half • failed to overtake Britain after the naval battle of Trafalgar ON THE BATTLEFIELD
  6. 6. • stabilized the economy • took control of prices • encouraged new industries • built new roads and canals • set up a system of public schools under strict government control • made peace and compromised with the pope REFORMS
  7. 7. • encouraged émigrés to return to France after taking a loyalty oath • made jobs available to virtually anyone • created the Napoleonic Code • emphasized equality among citizens • religious tolerance • advancement based on merit • took rights away from women who could no longer exercise the rights of citizenship • men regained complete control over family and household REFORMS
  9. 9. Goal(s) • restore economic prosperity • stabilize prices Result(s) • industry grew • economy stabilizes • prices return to normal 1) NAPOLEON TOOK FIRM CONTROL OF PRICES AND INDUSTRY, AND BUILT ROADS AND CANALS
  10. 10. Goal(s) • to create a consistent legal system for all • to create reforms based on his own ideas and beliefs Result(s) • equality for all citizens • religious toleration • advancement based on merit • women lost the exercise of citizenship • men regained the status of head of the household and regained complete authority over their wife and children 2) ENACTED THE NAPOLEONIC CODE OF LAW
  11. 11. Goal(s) • to spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe • to create a grand empire Result(s) • redrew the boundaries in Europe • inspired a sense of Nationalism in France seen in celebrations for the new grandeur of France 3) FOUND MUCH SUCCESS IN MILITARY BATTLES ABROAD
  12. 12. Goal(s) • to defeat the British strength, which was their navy Result(s) • French fleet was crushed • Britain is never invaded • Napoleon used the Continental System 4) WAGED THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR
  13. 13. Goal(s) • to cripple Britain’s life blood – commerce Result(s) • Britain blockades European ports and prevents trade 5) EMPLOYED THE CONTINENTAL SYSTEM
  14. 14. C. MAIN IDEAS
  15. 15. • Where the French forces had before been seen as liberators by the lower classes of European nations, they were soon viewed as foreign oppressors • the new idea of Nationalism inspired nations to be free of French rule NATIONALISM
  16. 16. Nationality Language Culture History Religion Territory • A belief in a common ethnic ancestry – a belief that may or may not be true • Different dialects (forms) of one language; one dialect chosen as the “national language” Bonds that Create a Nation State • A shared way of life (food, dress, behavior, ideals) • A common past; common experiences • A religion shared by all or most of the people • A certain territory that belongs to the ethnic group; its “land” Nation-State • Defends the nation’s territory and its way of life • Represents the nation to the rest of the world • Embodies the people and its ideals
  17. 17. • Napoleon replaces the Spanish king with his brother and attempts to undermine the Spanish Catholic Church • the people of Spain remained loyal to their former king and their church • the Spanish used guerrilla warfare to attack and defeat the formal French forces • Napoleon was forced to keep French forces in Spain even though they were needed elsewhere SPAIN
  18. 18. • inspired by the Spanish resistance, Austrians began to fight back • Napoleon successfully re-defeated the Austrians • Austria was force to cede lands to France that were home to over 3 million people • Napoleon divorced his wife and married an Austrian Hapsburg princess, this guaranteed that his offspring would be able to claim kinship to the royalty of Europe AUSTRIA
  19. 19. • Russia did not like many of Napoleon’s policies: they suffered from his Continental System and they did not like the size and strength of the newly formed Grand Duchy of Warsaw • the Russian defeated Napoleon’s Grand Army and he was forced to return to France to rebuilt his forces • the mystique of Napoleon’s invincibility was broken RUSSIA
  20. 20. • a new Quadruple Alliance (Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia) threatened the weakened French military • Napoleon had no choice but to abdicate, and was forced into exile • émigrés sought revenge on republicans in France • Napoleon returns, is defeated and is exiled to the distant island of St. Helena WATERLOO
  21. 21. • redrew the borders of Europe with no regard for people’s heritages or nationalities • created a balance of power to contain French aggression • monarchs were restored to their throne through the policy of legitimacy • the newly formed German Confederation, with Austria as its official head, had aspirations of independence and a united German state RESULTS OF THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA (1814-1815)
  23. 23. • the Napoleonic Code solidified the ideas of the revolution • France was a centralized government with a constitution • expanded suffrage and elections were held • more citizens had rights to property • education was more accessible NAPOLEONIC CODE
  24. 24. • ideas of the revolution spread across Europe • feelings of nationalism spread across Europe REVOLUTION
  25. 25. • abolition of the Holy Roman Empire would lead to the creation of a new Germany (unification in 1871) GERMAN UNIFICATION
  26. 26. • Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the U.S. • Monroe Doctrine • US declaration and warning to European countries • Europe not to interfere with the Western Hemisphere • US will not interfere with Europe MANIFEST DESTINY