His 102 chapter 25 26 a the second world war part 1


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  • The Causes of the War: Unsettled Quarrels, Economic Fallout, and Nationalism

    In September 1939, Europe witnessed yet another global conflict, this one perhaps more deadly than the Great War. The framers of the peace settlement at Versailles carved up central and eastern Europe without regard for its ethnic or linguistic borders. As a result, old tensions were given new life. Although the great powers of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires were dissolved, a new conflict was beginning to take shape with decidedly different origins and profoundly different consequences. The Second World War was no continuation of the first. The nineteenth century had passed. This was a new war. 
  • Weimar Germany
    Shackled with the infamous “war guilt” clause, Germany emerged from the Great War a beaten nation. A revolution swept the nation in November 1918 and a new government was established at Weimar. However, the Weimar Republic faced nearly insurmountable problems right from the start. Economic disorder and social unrest, as well as the feeling of humiliation and betrayal, produced an environment that made it possible for Adolf Hitler, the tramp from Vienna turned Führer (leader), to capture Germany with the hope of creating a thousand-year Third Reich. 
  • The 1930s: Challenges to the Peace
    The Second World War was Hitler’s war. When Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany through legal channels in January 1933, Europe was on the verge of facing its greatest threat. Germany was both demoralized and debilitated by Versailles; it was overcome by inflation and massive unemployment. Hitler and the Nazi Party promised regeneration. With the memories of the Great War foremost in their minds, Britain and France stood down and appeased Hitler as he reoccupied the Ruhr, annexed Austria, and marched his troops into the Sudetenland. In the meantime, Hitler’s storm troopers paraded through the streets of every town in Germany, with loudspeakers blaring the Nazi ideology of racial hatred, Aryan supremacy, and the master race. Hitler, the Führer, had come to deliver them from the humiliation that was Versailles and into the thousand-year Third Reich. 
  • The Outbreak of Hostilities and the Fall of France
    But the Third Reich was markedly short-lived. After Hitler marched into Poland, the British and French declared war. The United States cautiously waited until an unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, made their entry into the war necessary. Meanwhile, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union. The war raged on for more than five years until the German will to power had finally been broken. Hitler’s Third Reich was no match for the military-industrial machine of the United States. Hitler committed suicide and on May 7, 1945, the German High Command signed the document of unconditional surrender. 
  • His 102 chapter 25 26 a the second world war part 1

    1. 1. The SecondWorldWar Chapter 25-26A
    2. 2. Introduction • Threats to the balance of power • A conflict among nations, peoples, and ideals • The new methods of warfare • The Holocaust and the atomic bomb
    3. 3. The Causes ofWar: Quarrels, Economics, Nationalism • TheTreaty ofVersailles peace settlement • Created more problems than it solved • Allied naval blockade of Germany to force Germany to peace negotiations • German “war guilt” clause
    4. 4. The Causes ofWar: Quarrels, Economics, Nationalism • Peace and security • No binding standards created for peace and security inVersailles Treaty • How to guarantee peace? • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)—outlawing war as an international crime • The League of Nations • Germany and the Soviet Union were excluded • The United States never joined
    5. 5. The Causes ofWar: Quarrels, Economics, Nationalism • Economic conditions • German reparations and slow recovery • The Great Depression undermined democratic government throughout Europe and intensified economic nationalism • Depression as last blow toWeimar Germany
    6. 6. The Causes ofWar: Quarrels, Economics, Nationalism • Ideologies • Violent nationalism: political dissent/disagreement as treason • Glorifying the nation and national destiny • Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany formed the “Axis” (later joined by Japan) • Fascist regimes in eastern Europe • Lenin and Stalin used opposition to Communism in western countries to create nationalistic support for Communism at home
    7. 7. The Emergence of Fascism in Italy • In the aftermath ofWWI • A democracy in distress • Seven hundred thousand dead, $15 billion debt • Territorial disputes
    8. 8. The Emergence of Fascism in Italy • The rise of Mussolini (1883–1945) • The Fascist platform (1919): universal suffrage, the eight- hour day, and tax on inheritance • Fascist support • Gained respect of middle classes and landowners • Repressed radical movements of workers and peasants • Attacked socialists • Fifty thousand fascist militia marched on Rome on October 28, 1922
    9. 9. Mussolini at the march on Rome
    10. 10. The Emergence of Fascism in Italy • Italy under Mussolini • Repression and censorship • Liberals and socialists considered enemies of the state • Granted independence to papal residence in theVatican City • RomanCatholicism established as the state religion
    11. 11. Weimar Germany • November 9, 1918: Revolution • Bloodless overthrow of the imperial government of KaiserWilhelm • Social Democratic Party (SPD) announced a new German Republic • The Kaiser abdicated
    12. 12. Social Democratic Party leader, Philip Scheiderman, announces creation of a German Republic on November 9, 1918
    13. 13. Weimar Germany • Problems • Major changes introduced by unelected Council of People’s Commissioners • Introduced 8 hour workday, legalized labor unions, required re- hiring of WWI veterans; farm labor reforms; social welfare; national health insurance. • Conservatives opposed these measures and Communists thought they did not go far enough • Elections not held until January 1919
    14. 14. Weimar Germany • Communists and independent socialists staged armed uprisings in Berlin during interim between Kaiser’s abdication and election • Social Democrats tried to crush the uprisings • The Freikorps • Former army officers fighting Bolsheviks, Poles, and communists • Fiercely right-wing anti-Marxist, anti-Semitic, and anti-liberal
    15. 15. Freikorps Recruiting Poster
    16. 16. Freikorps Communists
    17. 17. Weimar Germany • The Weimar coalition • Socialists,Catholic centrists, and liberal democrats • Parliamentary liberalism • Universal suffrage for men and women • Bill of rights
    18. 18. Why Did theWeimar Republic Fail? • Social, political, and economic crisis • The humiliation ofWorldWar I & conservative propaganda • Argument that Germany “stabbed in the back” by socialists and Jews widely accepted among conservatives • Versailles and reparations • $33 billion debt: impossible to repay • Parliamentary system and proportional representation gave too much power to minority parties by necessitating governing coalitions in a deeply fractured country.
    19. 19. Why did theWeimar Republic Fail? • The failure ofWeimar • Global Economic Depression further weakenedWeimar government • U.S. stock market crash • Unemployment • Peasants staged mass demonstrations • Government cut welfare benefits for veterans • Opponents seized economic setbacks to undermine Weimar government
    20. 20. Disabled War Veteran Reduced to begging
    21. 21. Hyperinflation
    22. 22. By 1930, the two best organized opposition parties were the Communist Party and the National Socialist German Worker’s (NAZI) Party
    23. 23. Hitler and the National Socialists • Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) • Born in Austria, rejected by the Academy of Fine Arts inVienna in 1907 and 1908. • Supported by orphan’s benefits and his mother. After her death, Hitler lived in a homeless shelter in 1909 and later in a hostel for poor laborers. • Apparently adopted Anti-Semitism, anti- Marxism, and pan-Slavism while inVienna. • Hitler moved to Munich in 1913. • Viewed the outbreak ofWorldWar I as his liberation
    24. 24. Hitler’s Baby picture Hitler’s mother, Klara The Alter Hof in Munich, watercolor, 1914, by Adolph Hitler. A soldier in WWI in a German Bavarian Regiment
    25. 25. Hitler and the National Socialists • After the war, Hitler joined the GermanWorkers’ Party • Refused to accept the November (1918) Resolution ending WWI • 1920: GermanWorkers Party reorganized into National SocialistWorkers’ Party (Nazi)
    26. 26. Nazi Manifesto • 1. We demand the unification of all Germans in the Greater Germany on the basis of the right of self-determination of peoples. • 2. We demand equality of rights for the German people in respect to the other nations; abrogation of the peace treaties of Versailles and St. Germain. • 3. We demand land and territory (colonies) for the sustenance of our people, and colonization for our surplus population. • 4. Only a member of the race can be a citizen. A member of the race can only be one who is of German blood, without consideration of creed. Consequently no Jew can be a member of the race. • 5. Whoever has no citizenship is to be able to live in Germany only as a guest, and must be under the authority of legislation for foreigners. • 6. The right to determine matters concerning administration and law belongs only to the citizen. Therefore we demand that every public office, of any sort whatsoever, whether in the Reich, the county or municipality, be filled only by citizens… • 7. We demand that the state be charged first with providing the opportunity for a livelihood and way of life for the citizens. If it is impossible to sustain the total population of the State, then the members of foreign nations (non-citizens) are to be expelled from the Reich. • 8. Any further immigration of non-citizens is to be prevented. We demand that all non-Germans, who have immigrated to Germany since 2 August 1914, be forced immediately to leave the Reich.
    27. 27. Nazi Manifesto • We demand legal opposition to known lies and their promulgation through the press. In order to enable the provision of a German press, we demand, that: • All writers and employees of the newspapers appearing in the German language be members of the race: • Non-German newspapers be required to have the express permission of the State to be published.They may not be printed in the German language… • Publications which are counter to the general good are to be forbidden. We demand legal prosecution of artistic and literary forms which exert a destructive influence on our national life, and the closure of organizations opposing the above made demands.
    28. 28. Nazi Manifesto • We demand freedom of religion for all religious denominations within the state so long as they do not endanger its existence or oppose the moral senses of the Germanic race. • The Party as such advocates the standpoint of a positive Christianity without binding itself confessionally to any one denomination. • It combats the Jewish-materialistic spirit within and around us, and is convinced that a lasting recovery of our nation can only succeed from within on the framework: common utility precedes individual utility.
    29. 29. Why did Germans join the Nazi Party? • Key Reasons • Nazis took a strong stand against communism • Nazis promised to protect traditionalGerman values • Equated traditional German values with Aryan race • Nazis used anti-Semitism but also downplayed it as only one of many points • Nazis promised to restore German pride and place in Europe and protect German interests abroad • Nazis promised to create jobs and restore prosperity
    30. 30. Hitler and the National Socialists • November 1923: Munich (Beer Hall) putsch • Along with other Nazi’s Hitler attempted a coup d’etat • Hitler imprisoned and Dictated Mein Kampf while in prison • Portrayed himself as the savior of the German people • Weimar elections • 1924: Nazis polled 6.6 percent of the vote
    31. 31. Beer Hall Putsch Defendants
    32. 32. Proportional Representation and the Parliamentary System Parliamentary System: Political parties offer a slate of candidates • Voters elect a party not individual candidates • Many parties may participate in parliamentary elections • Each party receives seats in parliament equal to the proportional number of votes it received in the election • If no one party gets 51% or more, the party with the most seats has an opportunity to form a coalition with other parties. The leader of the party with the most votes is usually the Prime Minister • Parliamentary system differs from U.S. system where voters elect a candidate
    33. 33. • Played off fears of Communism at home and abroad • Spoke the language of National Pride in terms of romantic nationalism • Recovery of German national glory • Aryan race as pure, strong, ready to take action • Hitler as the symbol of a strong, revitalized Germany (Fuhrer cult) Nazi Propaganda
    34. 34. How did Hitler come to power? • 1930 election • Nazis won 107 of 577 seats in the Reichstag • No party gained a majority • Conservative Party attempted for form a coalition government with the Nazis who refused to support a coalition government unless Hitler was Chancellor (Prime Minister) • Nazi refusal to join the coalition caused the failure of the conservative coalition government requiring new elections • Street battles between Nazis and Communists
    35. 35. How did Hitler come to power? • July 1932 elections • Nazi party became the largest party in the Reichstag (Parliament) but did not have a majority • Two largest parties were Hindenburg’s Conservative party and Nazi party • Nazi party refused to join any coalition unless Hitler was made Chancellor • Conservatives refused to name Hitler Chancellor • Stalemate resulted in caretaker government • Street battles continue between Communists and Nazis • Government paralyzed and cannot perform basic functions • Economic situation worsened
    36. 36. How did Hitler come to power? • November 1932 elections • Nazi Party lost significant seats but still the largest party • Communist Party and NationalConservativeGerman National Party increased seats significantly • Hindenberg finally agreed form a government with Hitler as Chancellor • Nazis appointed to major posts in the government
    37. 37. How did Nazis Consolidate Power? • Hitler as chancellor • January 1933: Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor • February 27, 1933: Reichstag set on fire by Dutch anarchist • Hitler suspended civil rights • March 5, 1933: New elections • Hitler granted unlimited power for four years • Hitler proclaimed theThird Reich
    38. 38. Hitler and Hindenburg January 1933. Hindenburg believed that Hitler could be controlled by Conservatives
    39. 39. The Reichstag Fire, 27 February, 1933.
    40. 40. How did Nazis consolidate power? • Nazi Germany • A one-party state • Hitler’s first acts sharply limited freedom of the press and enabled the cabinet to issue decrees without the consent or approval of the Reichstag. • Reichstag Fire Decree suspended all civil liberties guaranteed by the German constitution. • Widespread arrests of known or suspected opponents of the Nazi party—mainly outspoken liberals and Communists. • Opposition tactics • Storm troopers (SA)—used to maintain party discipline • June 30, 1934: Night of the Long Knives purged SA not believed to be loyal to Hitler personally.
    41. 41. How did Nazis consolidate power? • National recovery • Sealed Germany off from the rest of the world’s economy • Massive investments in public infrastructure • Outlawed trade unions and strikes, froze wages • Organized workers into the National Labor Front • Popular organizations cut across class lines • Rebuilt German military/industrial complex • Unemployment dropped significantly
    42. 42. Still Image from Leni Riefenstahl, Triumph of the Will (1935), a Film about a Nazi Party Rally in Nuremberg, Germany in, 1934.
    43. 43. Nazis and German Racism • Nazi racism • Nazi racism inherited from nineteenth-century social Darwinism • Nations and people struggle for survival • Superior peoples strengthen themselves through struggle • Anti-Semitism • Joined by nationalist anti-Jewish theory:The Jew as outsider to the German nation • An “international Jewish conspiracy” based in part on Protocols of the Elders of Zion – a conspiracy theory claiming that International Jewish leaders were intent on taking over the world. • Protocols of the Elders of Zion thought to be created in 1903 by the Tsar’s Security police.
    44. 44. Nazi Racism • Nazi racism • April 1933: New racial laws excluded Jews from public office • 1935 Nuremberg Decrees • Deprived Jews of citizenship (determined by bloodline) • November 1938: Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass)
    45. 45. Nazi Boycott of Jewish Shops in Berlin, 1933
    46. 46. Krystallnacht (November 9-10, 1938)
    47. 47. The 1930s –The “Dishonest Decade” • An atmosphere of fear and apprehension • Aggression as a challenge to civilization • Avoiding another war at all costs
    48. 48. The 1930s –The “Dishonest Decade” • Appeasement • Assumptions by France and Britain • The outbreak of another world war was unthinkable • Fascist states were a bulwark against Soviet communism • Ends: how to maintain Europe’s balance of power? • Soviets the greater threat, so accommodate Hitler
    49. 49. Lenin and Stalin
    50. 50. The Soviet Union under Stalin • Stalin succeeded to power after Lenin died in 1924 • Collectivization • Local party and police officials forced peasants to join collective farms • Peasant resistance: sixteen hundred large-scale rebellions between 1929 and 1933
    51. 51. The Soviet Union under Stalin • Collectivization • The famine (1932–1933) • The human cost was 3–5 million lives • The Bolsheviks retained grain reserves • Grain reserves sold overseas for currency • Stockpiled in the event of war
    52. 52. The 1930s –The “Dishonest Decade” • The League of Nations • Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935 • Avenging the defeat of 1896 • League imposed sanctions on Italy but without enforcement • Japanese invasion ofChina turned into an invasion of the whole country • The Rape of Nanjing (1937) • The League expressed shock but did nothing • Hitler Annexed Austria in 1938 to subdued reaction in France, Britain and the U.S.
    53. 53. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade” • German rearmament and the politics of appeasement • Hitler played onGermans’ sense of shame and betrayal • Removed Germany from the League of Nations in 1933 • Tore up disarmament provisions ofVersailles in 1935
    54. 54. Dress Rehearsal for WWII: The Spanish CivilWar • The Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) • A weak republican government could not overcome opposition • Extreme right-wing military officers rebelled • Francisco Franco (r. 1936–1975) • Hitler and Mussolini sent in troops and tested new weapons; war was a dress rehearsal • Saw the war as a test of theWest’s determination to resist fascism
    55. 55. Antifascist Propaganda, Spanish Civil War
    56. 56. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade” • The Spanish CivilWar (1936–1939) • The Soviets sided with the troops fighting for the Spanish Republic • Britain and France failed to act decisively • April 1937:The destruction of Guernica • Hitler’s lessons • Britain, France, and the Soviet Union would have a hard time containing fascism • Britain and France would do anything to avoid another war
    57. 57. Bombing of Guernica, Spain April 26, 1937 Undertaken by German Luftwaffe volunteers of the Condor Legion 1st “terror bombing” of civilians. Demoralizing the enemy has been Thought to make surrender more likely.
    58. 58. Guernica by Pablo Picasso (1937)
    59. 59. Salvador Dali, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans, 1936
    60. 60. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade” • German rearmament • The unification of all ethnic Germans • Reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936 • The annexation of Austria (1938) • Hitler declared his intention to occupy the Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) • German people needed Lebensraum (living space) and as a superior people had right to take land from inferior races like Slavs and Poles • Neville Chamberlain (British P.M.) believed Germany could not commit to a sustained war
    61. 61. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade” • The Politics of appeasement: Munich • Daladier (France), Chamberlain (Great Britain), Mussolini, and Hitler meeting (Soviet Union excluded) in Munich on September 29, 1938 • Hitler agreed not to seek more land if allowed to occupy the Sudetenland • France and Britain agreed. • Czechoslovakian negotiators were kept outside the meeting • Chamberlain proclaimed “peace in our time” • March 1939: Germany invaded Czechoslovakia • Persuaded public of the futility of appeasement
    62. 62. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade” • The politics of appeasement • Stalin’s response • Feared the West might strike a deal with Hitler leaving the Soviet Union vulnerable to invasion by Germany • August 1939: the Nazi-Soviet (Hitler-Stalin) pact of nonaggression • Stalin promised a share of Poland, Finland, and the Baltic States • Germany took western Poland • Germany and the Soviet Union agreed not to invade each other
    63. 63. The Outbreak of Hostilities and the Fall of France • Poland • Hitler attacked Poland on September 1, 1939 • Britain and France sent a warning to Germany • Germany ignored the demand • Britain and France declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939
    64. 64. The Outbreak of Hostilities and the Fall of France • Poland • The Blitzkrieg (lightning war) • Soviet troops invaded from the East • Poland fell in four weeks
    65. 65. What is Blitzkrieg? • Blitzkrieg • a motorized force combining tanks, infantry, artillery, combat engineers and air power, • concentrating overwhelming force at high speed to break through enemy lines, and, once the lines are broken, proceed without regard to its flank. • Through constant motion, the blitzkrieg attempts to keep its enemy off-balance, making it difficult to respond effectively at any given point before the front has already moved on.
    66. 66. The Outbreak of Hostilities and the Fall of France • Scandinavia—Germans took Denmark in one day (Spring 1940) • May 10, 1939: Germans moved through Belgium toward France • The fall of France • French army overwhelmed by the German advance • French refugees fled south
    67. 67. The Outbreak of Hostilities and the Fall of France • The fall of France • Dunkirk: June 1940--three hundred thousand British and French troops evacuated to England • Mid-June 1940: the Germans reached Paris • June 20, 1940: French surrendered • Germans occupied northern France • Southern France fell under theVichy regime, headed by Marshall Pétain
    68. 68. The Battle of Britain & the Beginnings of a Global War • The Battle of Britain (July 1940–June 1941) • Forty thousand civilians dead • Stalemate in the air • British resistance
    69. 69. London during the Battle of Britain
    70. 70. The Battle of Britain & the Beginnings of a Global War • Winston Churchill (1940–1945, 1951–1955) • Language and personal diplomacy • Persuaded FDR to break with American neutrality • Lend-LeaseAct • Military aid and weapons to Britain free of charge • Military aid and weapons sent to Soviet Union and China & Free French under Lend Lease
    71. 71. The Battle of Britain & the Beginnings of a Global War • A global war • The battle of the Atlantic • German submarines (“wolf packs”) sank millions of tons of merchant shipping • British development of sonar and aerial reconnaissance • Breaking the German codes
    72. 72. The Battle of Britain & the Beginnings of a Global War • A global war • NorthAfrica • British needed to protect the Suez • British humiliation of Italian invasion force in Libya • Forced Germany to intervene • Afrika Korps and Erwin Rommel • Rommel’s invasion of Egypt defeated at El Alamein (1942) • United States landed in French territories of Algeria and Morocco
    73. 73. Germany’sWar in the East & the Occupation of Europe • German victories • 1941: Germany tookYugoslavia • Romania, Hungary, and Bulgaria sided with Germany • Greece ultimately fell to the Germans • By the summer of 1941, Germany dominated the continent
    74. 74. The Second World War in Europe
    75. 75. The Battle of Britain & the Beginnings of a Global War • Japan • December 7, 1941: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor • Set out to destroy U.S. fleet • Most American ships were out to sea • U.S. declared war onGermany, Italy and Japan
    76. 76. “A Date which will Live in Infamy,” December 7, 1941
    77. 77. The Beginnings of a GlobalWar Japanese swept through British protectorate of Malaya Singapore fell in December 1941 The invasion of the Philippines May, 1942 Corregidor and the “Death March” Japanese pressed on to Burma
    78. 78. The Beginnings of a Global War • A global war • The American navy • Rapid production of planes and ships • Coral Sea, Midway, and Guadalcanal • “Island hopping”
    79. 79. World War II in the Pacific
    80. 80. Germany’sWar in the East & the Occupation of Europe • Hitler’s ultimate goal • Russia and the Ukraine • Ethnically inferior Slavs and Jews, governed by communists • Nazi-Soviet Pact as a matter of convenience for Hitler • June 22, 1941: Hitler authorized Operation Barbarossa—the invasion of the Soviet Union • Stalin’s purges had killed or imprisoned Russia’s most capable commanders
    81. 81. Germany’sWar in the East & the Occupation of Europe • Hitler’s ultimate goal • Propaganda: Russia and Ukraine occupied by ethnically inferior Slavs and Jews governed by morally inferior Communists • War against the Soviets characterized by ideology and racial hatred • Cleansing occupied territories of “undesirable elements” • June 22, 1941: Hitler authorized Operation Barbarossa—the invasion of the Soviet Union • Hitler diverted his attack from Moscow to the industrial south
    82. 82. Germany’sWar in the East & the Occupation of Europe • The Nazi New Order • A patchwork affair • Military governments (Poland and Ukraine) • Collaborators (France) • Allied fascists (Hungary) • The empire was meant to feed Germany and maintain morale and support • Occupied countries paid “occupation costs” in taxes, food, industrial production, and manpower
    83. 83. Germany’sWar in the East & the Occupation of Europe • The Nazi New Order • Puppet regimes • Norway and the Netherlands • France • Collaboration ranged from simple survival tactics to active Nazi support
    84. 84. Germany’sWar in the East & the Occupation of Europe • The Nazi New Order • France • Communist activists • Had a long tradition of smuggling and resisting government • Became active guerrillas and saboteurs • The Free French and Charles de Gaulle
    85. 85. “Cultural Terror,” 1944
    86. 86. Germany’sWar in the East & the Occupation of Europe • The Nazi New Order • Yugoslavia • Fascist Croats against most Serbs • Josip Broz (Tito) emerged as the leader of theYugoslav resistance • Communist guerrilla army • Moral issues facing the occupied countries • The enemies of the Nazis—the “undesirables” • How to unite against the Nazis given ethnic, ideological differences that the Nazis exploited
    87. 87. RacialWar, Ethnic Cleansing, and the Holocaust • WorldWar II as a racial war • Hitler had already outlined his war against the Untermensch (subhuman) • Jews, Gypsies, Poles and Slavs • The purification of the German people
    88. 88. RacialWar, Ethnic Cleansing, and the Holocaust • WorldWar II as a racial war • Fall 1939: Himmler directed massive population transfers • Ethnic Germans moved into the Reich • Poles and Jews were deported • A campaign of terror • Poles deported to forced-labor camps • Special death squads shot Jews in the streets
    89. 89. RacialWar, Ethnic Cleansing, and the Holocaust • World War II as a racial war • Rassenkampf (racial struggle) • Radicalized by the war itself • 1938–1941: Nazis had no concerted plan to deal with undesirables • Forced emigration • Deportation to Madagascar • June 1941:The turning point—Barbarossa • Nazis directed hatred against Slavs, Jews, and Marxists • A “war of extermination”
    90. 90. RacialWar, Ethnic Cleansing, and the Holocaust • From systematic brutality to atrocities to murder • More than 5 million military prisoners marched to camps to work as slave labor • The Einsatzgruppen (death squads) • 1941: “Pacification” had killed eighty-five thousand • April 1942: five hundred thousand killed • 1943: 2.2 million Jews killed • TheWarsaw and Lodz ghetto—death and terror
    91. 91. RacialWar, Ethnic Cleansing, and the Holocaust • The Holocaust • Nazis discussed plans for mass killings in death camps • The ghettos were sealed • Poison gas vans • Auschwitz-Birkenau • Systematic annihilation of Poles, Jews and Gypsies
    92. 92. Racial War, Ethnic Cleansing and the Holocaust • The “Jewish Problem” • Many Europeans viewed Jews as “outsiders” believed there was a problem to be solved • Nazis tried to conceal the death camps and claimed Jews were being “resettled” in the East • Although there were reports of “death camps” government officials in theWestern Allies claimed not to know the extent of the slaughter until after the war was over.
    93. 93. Blueprint for Crematorium II, Birkenau, Dated November 1941. The Five Shaded Squares in the Lower Drawing are the Gas Ovens in the Structure’s Underground Level, and the Area to the Right is Labeled “Corpses Room.”
    94. 94. Blueprint for the “Delousing Facility” at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Showing a Room of 11.6 Meters by 11.2 Meters Marked “Gaskammer” (Gas Chamber)
    95. 95. RacialWar, Ethnic Cleansing, and the Holocaust • The Holocaust • Was it anonymous slaughter? • People were tortured, beaten, and executed publicly • Death marches • Reserve Police Battalion 101 from Hamburg • Were the victims anonymous to their neighbors?
    96. 96. RacialWar, Ethnic Cleansing, and the Holocaust • The Holocaust • Who knew? • Extermination involved the knowledge and cooperation of many not directly involved in killing • Most who suspected the worst were terrified and powerless?
    97. 97. • Visa application (Form BC)—Five copies • Birth certificate—Two copies (country of birth determined applicable quotas) • Quota number, which established the person’s place on the waiting list to enter the United States • Two sponsors (close relatives of prospective immigrant were preferred).The sponsors had to beAmerican citizens or have permanent resident status, and they had to fill out and provide the following: • Affidavit of Support and Sponsorship (Form C)—Six copies, notarized • Certified copy of most recent federal tax return • Affidavit from a bank about accounts • Affidavit from any other responsible person regarding other assets (affidavit from the sponsor’s employer or statement of commercial rating) • Certificate of Good Conduct from German police authorities, including two copies of each of the following: • Police dossier prison record • Military record • Other government records about the individual • Affidavits of Good Conduct (after September 1940) • Evidence of passing a physical examination at a U.S. consulate • Proof of permission to leave Germany (imposed September 30, 1939) • Proof the prospective immigrant had booked passage to the Western hemisphere (imposed September 1939) Visa Documentation Required to Enter the US 1933-1945
    98. 98. RacialWar, Ethnic Cleansing, and the Holocaust • The Holocaust • Who knew? • What of other governments? • Vichy France required Jews to wear special identification • Italians participated less actively • Hungarian government dragged its feet when it came to deportation • Many people believed that resistance was futile • Was this attitude based on apathy or cowardice? • How did people claim not to know? • Wall of the Righteous USHMM; Avenue of the RighteousYadVeshem— Gentiles who saved Jews from the Holocaust remembered and honored.
    99. 99. RacialWar, Ethnic Cleansing, and the Holocaust Human costs = 4.1–5.7 million Jews killed. Some long-standing Jewish communities were annihilated.
    100. 100. Rebellions • Auschwitz • http://en.auschwitz.org/h/index.php?option=com_content&task =view&id=9&Itemid=11 • Treblinka • http://www.ushmm.org/research/center/lerman/medal_award/a ward.php?content=treblinka • Warsaw Ghetto Uprising • http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/uprising/
    101. 101. Hittler’s “Final Solution”: Jews Marked for Death