SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 15
Western Enlightenment
Background
• Rising Literacy Rates: 30-70% for males in urban European
areas; 30-50% for rural males; 20-50% for females
• Print culture: books, newspapers, journals, subscription
series, lending libraries
• Social Culture: salons, coffee houses and cafes, secret
societies
• Emergence of public opinion, and censorship
• Middle-class movement: Rising numbers of urbanites,
professionals, businessmen; critical of traditional
aristocratic structures
• Scientific Revolution and Spinoza’s monistic mechanism
• Reformation, Wars of Religion
Extent
• Affordable: newspapers and broadsheets accessible to
lower income readers; subscription-based book series;
lending libraries
• Popularization of Scientific Revolution (Bernard de
Fontenelle, Plurality of Worlds; Voltaire), Engineering
and technology
• International Movement: Holland, England, France,
Scotland, Americas, German-speaking territories, Russia
• Political Influence: "Enlightened Despots" Frederick the
Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, Charles
III of Spain, Joseph II of Austria, etc.
Themes
"we currently see 'Enlightenment' as the growth of a non-
theocentric 'philosophy' of civil society, with political
economy and a history of society and l'esprit humain among
its outgrowths." -- JGA Pocock on John Robertson
•Often hostile to religion, at least organized religion
•Rationality, philosophical logic, and scientific process
applied to Social issues.
•Argumentation: Disagreement on many fundamental issues
•Progress through education; progress linear
•Equality and Protection of Rights
J. G. A. POCOCK, HISTORIOGRAPHY
AND ENLIGHTENMENT (2008)
"In studying the intellectual history of the late 17th
century and the 18th, we encounter a variety of
statements made, and assumptions proposed, to
which the term 'Enlightenment' may usefully be
applied, but the meanings of the term shift as we
apply it. The things are connected, but not
continuous; they cannot be reduced to a single
narrative; and we find ourselves using the word
“Enlightenment” in a family of ways and talking
about a family of phenomena, resembling and
related to one another in a variety of ways that
permit of various generalizations about them."
Social Contracts
• Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
• Leviathan: "The natural state of
men, before they were joined in
society, was a war, and not simply,
but a war of all against all."
• State of Nature: "the life of man,
solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and
short"
• state exists as expression of social
contract to raise our level of
discipline and accomplishment.
• Authoritarian commonwealth.
• Sovereignty rests with monarch
• Loss of rights preferable to loss of
order
• John Locke (1632-1704)
• tabula rasa: born a blank slate
• moral and intellectual
development a function of
environment
• Equality and Progress
• Christianity a rational moral
system subordinating self-regard
• people enter into the social
contract to preserve, not
surrender, their social rights.
• Sovereignty rests with citizenry
• Mutual Obligations: monarch
must preserve rights of citizens,
or citizens can and should replace
monarch.
François-Marie Arouet,
aka Voltaire
• Writer in multiple genres: novels, pamphlets, non-
fiction, drama
– Literary criticism
– Scientific Popularizer, esp. Newton
• Rich and intelligent woman, Émilie du Châtelet, who
supported him and participated in writing projects
• Candide: anti-war, against religious intolerance, argues
against Locke/Spinoza idea that human nature
fundamentally good and world a beneficent place.
• Religion
– Organized Church: "l'infame"
– Deism
Relgion and Anti-Religion
• Voltaire argued for religious toleration, and was an architect of deism,
including the idea of Jesus as "good fellow".
• God as "Divine Watchmaker" (following Spinoza) and Final Arbiter
• Freemasons spread deism as practice, social change through
enlightenment. Members included Voltaire, Diderot, Duke of Orleans,
Frederick the Great, W.A. Mozart, George Washington, Benjamin
Franklin, Simon Bolivar.
• Some argued that Christianity, stripped of superstition and institutional
power, an acceptable Enlightenment morality.
• Denis Diderot highly critical of Christianity, moving from deism to
atheism -- the first true atheist in the Western tradition. Argued that
belief in God neither required for understanding nor beneficial for
human development
• David Hume argued that Miracles cannot ever be accepted as true.
• Immanuel Kant argued for rational basis of morality, the Categorical
Imperative to treat individuals as ends in themselves rather than means
to an end.
Religion and Historiography
•"Scepticism might end either in reducing
Christ to a being describable in human
terms, or in an irreducible claim to have
met him and been reborn in the encounter.
This is how Enlightenment left Protestant
Christianity polarized between two
extremes—the one unitarian and the other
evangelical—a polarization that persists in
the politics of the United States of
America." - JGA Pocock
Charles de Secondat,
baron de Montesquieu
• 1721 Persian Letters a critique of French society in the voice of
Turkish visitors, particularly Church and Monarchy.
• 1748 The Spirit of the Laws attempted to apply scientific method
to social relationships, categorizing states as "republics, suitable
for small states and based on citizen involvement; monarchy,
appropriate for middle-sized states and grounded in the ruling
class's adherence to law; and despotism, apt for large empires and
dependent on fear to inspire obedience." (Spielvogel 369)
• Argues that systems of government must be adapted to cultural
and historical environment, but that ideal form would include
division of powers between executive, legislative and judicial
authorities.
• Monarchist, but believed in moderation of power, shared
sovereignty
The Encyclopedia,
or Classified Dictionary of the
Sciences, Arts and Trades
• Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. 17 volumes of text,
including 60,000 articles; 11 volumes of illustrations published
between 1751 and 1772. Over 100 authors.
• Practical knowledge, applied science and technology: catalog of
"modern" life. Deliberate attempt to change society by intellectual
discourse
• Highly critical of society and government; highly annoying to the
French government, "but contributors to the Encyclopedia learned to
avoid censure by hiding controversial ideas in obscure articles or by
cloaking them with irony." (KOT-B 401).
• Sold by subscription, like a journal; Benjamin Franklin and Thomas
Jefferson both readers.
• Reduction in price for later editions made it accessible to wider range
of society: "doctors, clergymen, teachers, lawyers and even military
officers." (Spielvogel 370)
Social Theory
• Cesare Beccaria
– punishment should be a deterrent to crime
– torture - punishment before judgement - not legitimate
– execution, especially public execution, both unsuccessful deterrent
and damaging to public morals
• Nicholas, Marquis de Condorcet
– "nature has set no term to the perfection of human faculties; that
the perfectibility of man is truly indefinite; and that the progress of
this perfectibility, from now onwards independent of any power that
might wish to halt it, has no other limit than the duration of the
globe upon which nature has cast us. This progress will doubtless
vary in speed, but it will never be reversed."
– Ironically, written while he was fleeing the Revolutionary Terror,
prior to his suicide in 1794.
Economic Theory
• Physiocrats, (François Quesnay and Pierre Dupont de
Nemours, etc.) defined concept of supply and demand
and benefit of individual self-interest.
• laissez-faire (to let alone) instead of mercantilism.
• Adam Smith, On the Wealth of Nations
– argued for economic freedom, clear rejection of mercantilism and
protectionism
– assumes boundless wealth of nature, "limitless" natural resources.
– creation of wealth through economic activity, not measured by specie
– expanding economy based on pursuit of enlightened self-interest on
the part of all individuals, specialization to maximize benefit,
"Invisible Hand" of collective decisions
– State should establish social and physical infrastructure: Army/Police,
Judiciary and Public Works.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
• Balance between sentiment and reason necessary, foreshadowing the
Romantic movement.
– Not a feminist, but a believer in sentiment as a necessary balance
to rationality, childhood stage through which all pass, and that
naturally irrational women provide critical emotional foundation to
civilization. This made him immensely popular among women.
– great advocate of breast feeding, leading to a sharp decline in the
use of wet-nurses, particularly among upper and middle classes.
• Radical democrat: majoritarian
– The Social Contract (1762) argued that the general will of society
was more important than the individual; freedom came from
obedience to law
– ideal community should be one which worked together to increase
common good; the highest value was virtue.
• Émile (1762): unforced pedagogy, learning from nature and action.
Religious faith, which led him to split with Encyclopedists
Sources
• Background Image: "China Trade Painting"
from the Waikoloa Hilton collection
• Kagan, Ozment, Turner: Western
Civilization: Brief Edition
• Spielvogel, Western Civilization

More Related Content

What's hot

His 102 chapter 15 Absolutism and Empire
His 102 chapter 15 Absolutism and EmpireHis 102 chapter 15 Absolutism and Empire
His 102 chapter 15 Absolutism and Empiredcyw1112
 
Chapter 18 PPT
Chapter 18 PPTChapter 18 PPT
Chapter 18 PPTezasso
 
His 102 chapter 25 26 a the second world war part 1
His 102 chapter 25 26 a the second world war part 1His 102 chapter 25 26 a the second world war part 1
His 102 chapter 25 26 a the second world war part 1dcyw1112
 
19c early20c revolutionsinlatinamerica
19c early20c revolutionsinlatinamerica19c early20c revolutionsinlatinamerica
19c early20c revolutionsinlatinamericaDave Phillips
 
World History Ch. 20 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 20 Section 1 NotesWorld History Ch. 20 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 20 Section 1 Notesskorbar7
 
Chapter 23 PowerPoint
Chapter 23 PowerPointChapter 23 PowerPoint
Chapter 23 PowerPointezasso
 
Chapter 23
Chapter 23Chapter 23
Chapter 23ezasso
 
Unit 5 industrialization and unification
Unit 5 industrialization and unificationUnit 5 industrialization and unification
Unit 5 industrialization and unificationBenjamin Lincoln
 
Chapter 22 the french revolution
Chapter 22 the french revolutionChapter 22 the french revolution
Chapter 22 the french revolutionKent Hansen
 
Latin American Wars for Independence
Latin American Wars for IndependenceLatin American Wars for Independence
Latin American Wars for IndependenceMatthew Caggia
 
Revolutions Compared (18th and 19th century)
Revolutions Compared (18th and 19th century)Revolutions Compared (18th and 19th century)
Revolutions Compared (18th and 19th century)Nathan Roher
 
Enlightenment 2012-2013
Enlightenment 2012-2013Enlightenment 2012-2013
Enlightenment 2012-2013Wenny Wang Wu
 
His 102 chapter 19 ppt
His 102 chapter 19 pptHis 102 chapter 19 ppt
His 102 chapter 19 pptdcyw1112
 
Chapter 22
Chapter 22 Chapter 22
Chapter 22 ezasso
 
The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era
The French Revolution and Napoleonic EraThe French Revolution and Napoleonic Era
The French Revolution and Napoleonic EraHals
 

What's hot (19)

His 102 chapter 15 Absolutism and Empire
His 102 chapter 15 Absolutism and EmpireHis 102 chapter 15 Absolutism and Empire
His 102 chapter 15 Absolutism and Empire
 
Chapter 18 PPT
Chapter 18 PPTChapter 18 PPT
Chapter 18 PPT
 
Ch18sec2
Ch18sec2Ch18sec2
Ch18sec2
 
His 102 chapter 25 26 a the second world war part 1
His 102 chapter 25 26 a the second world war part 1His 102 chapter 25 26 a the second world war part 1
His 102 chapter 25 26 a the second world war part 1
 
French revolution
French revolutionFrench revolution
French revolution
 
French revolution
French revolutionFrench revolution
French revolution
 
19c early20c revolutionsinlatinamerica
19c early20c revolutionsinlatinamerica19c early20c revolutionsinlatinamerica
19c early20c revolutionsinlatinamerica
 
World History Ch. 20 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 20 Section 1 NotesWorld History Ch. 20 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 20 Section 1 Notes
 
Chapter 23 PowerPoint
Chapter 23 PowerPointChapter 23 PowerPoint
Chapter 23 PowerPoint
 
Chapter 23
Chapter 23Chapter 23
Chapter 23
 
Unit 5 industrialization and unification
Unit 5 industrialization and unificationUnit 5 industrialization and unification
Unit 5 industrialization and unification
 
Chapter 22 the french revolution
Chapter 22 the french revolutionChapter 22 the french revolution
Chapter 22 the french revolution
 
Latin American Wars for Independence
Latin American Wars for IndependenceLatin American Wars for Independence
Latin American Wars for Independence
 
Revolutions Compared (18th and 19th century)
Revolutions Compared (18th and 19th century)Revolutions Compared (18th and 19th century)
Revolutions Compared (18th and 19th century)
 
Enlightenment 2012-2013
Enlightenment 2012-2013Enlightenment 2012-2013
Enlightenment 2012-2013
 
His 102 chapter 19 ppt
His 102 chapter 19 pptHis 102 chapter 19 ppt
His 102 chapter 19 ppt
 
Chapter 22
Chapter 22 Chapter 22
Chapter 22
 
Napoleon
NapoleonNapoleon
Napoleon
 
The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era
The French Revolution and Napoleonic EraThe French Revolution and Napoleonic Era
The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era
 

Viewers also liked

Enlightenment overview[1]
Enlightenment overview[1]Enlightenment overview[1]
Enlightenment overview[1]lherzl
 
Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal: Islamic Gunpowder Turkic Empires
Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal: Islamic Gunpowder Turkic EmpiresOttoman, Safavid, Mughal: Islamic Gunpowder Turkic Empires
Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal: Islamic Gunpowder Turkic EmpiresJonathan Dresner
 
19c European political and intellectual history
19c European political and intellectual history19c European political and intellectual history
19c European political and intellectual historyJonathan Dresner
 
The age of enlightenment powerpoint
The age of enlightenment powerpointThe age of enlightenment powerpoint
The age of enlightenment powerpointAndyHuang1994
 

Viewers also liked (7)

Enlightenment overview[1]
Enlightenment overview[1]Enlightenment overview[1]
Enlightenment overview[1]
 
Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal: Islamic Gunpowder Turkic Empires
Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal: Islamic Gunpowder Turkic EmpiresOttoman, Safavid, Mughal: Islamic Gunpowder Turkic Empires
Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal: Islamic Gunpowder Turkic Empires
 
19c European political and intellectual history
19c European political and intellectual history19c European political and intellectual history
19c European political and intellectual history
 
The Enlightenment
The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
 
The Enlightenment V2007
The Enlightenment V2007The Enlightenment V2007
The Enlightenment V2007
 
The age of enlightenment powerpoint
The age of enlightenment powerpointThe age of enlightenment powerpoint
The age of enlightenment powerpoint
 
The Enlightenment
The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
 

Similar to Western Enlightenment

The age of_enlightenment_2012
The age of_enlightenment_2012The age of_enlightenment_2012
The age of_enlightenment_2012AbderrahimChibi
 
Enlightenment webinar
Enlightenment webinarEnlightenment webinar
Enlightenment webinarochoa1jf
 
The Enlightenment
The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment
The EnlightenmentMicaelaD2
 
Enlightenment Philosophers
Enlightenment PhilosophersEnlightenment Philosophers
Enlightenment PhilosophersMr. Finnie
 
PDF_all ppt videos_mpp.pdf
PDF_all ppt videos_mpp.pdfPDF_all ppt videos_mpp.pdf
PDF_all ppt videos_mpp.pdfSakshisihag1
 
Ilustración, openthinkers
Ilustración, openthinkersIlustración, openthinkers
Ilustración, openthinkersGines García
 
Enlightenment Thinkers and Ideas
Enlightenment Thinkers and IdeasEnlightenment Thinkers and Ideas
Enlightenment Thinkers and Ideasbbednars
 
Secularization theories.pptx
Secularization theories.pptxSecularization theories.pptx
Secularization theories.pptxNathanMoyo1
 
Ape the enlightenment
Ape the enlightenmentApe the enlightenment
Ape the enlightenmentColleen Skadl
 
British cultural materialism
British cultural materialismBritish cultural materialism
British cultural materialismdeepikavaja
 
The Enlightenment Age and Thinkers.pptx
The Enlightenment Age and Thinkers.pptxThe Enlightenment Age and Thinkers.pptx
The Enlightenment Age and Thinkers.pptxNathanMoyo1
 
1-The State of Nature.pptx
1-The State of Nature.pptx1-The State of Nature.pptx
1-The State of Nature.pptxMehmoodHussain19
 
The Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment LamaMohammad8
 
Ap ch. 17 enlight.teach.copy-lect.1
Ap ch. 17 enlight.teach.copy-lect.1Ap ch. 17 enlight.teach.copy-lect.1
Ap ch. 17 enlight.teach.copy-lect.1Kenan Rajjoub
 

Similar to Western Enlightenment (20)

The age of_enlightenment_2012
The age of_enlightenment_2012The age of_enlightenment_2012
The age of_enlightenment_2012
 
Enlightenment webinar
Enlightenment webinarEnlightenment webinar
Enlightenment webinar
 
The enlightenment
The enlightenmentThe enlightenment
The enlightenment
 
The Enlightenment
The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
 
Enlightenment Philosophers
Enlightenment PhilosophersEnlightenment Philosophers
Enlightenment Philosophers
 
PDF_all ppt videos_mpp.pdf
PDF_all ppt videos_mpp.pdfPDF_all ppt videos_mpp.pdf
PDF_all ppt videos_mpp.pdf
 
Ilustración, openthinkers
Ilustración, openthinkersIlustración, openthinkers
Ilustración, openthinkers
 
Enlightenment Thinkers and Ideas
Enlightenment Thinkers and IdeasEnlightenment Thinkers and Ideas
Enlightenment Thinkers and Ideas
 
The Enlightenment
The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
 
Secularization theories.pptx
Secularization theories.pptxSecularization theories.pptx
Secularization theories.pptx
 
Enlightenment Thinker
Enlightenment ThinkerEnlightenment Thinker
Enlightenment Thinker
 
Ape the enlightenment
Ape the enlightenmentApe the enlightenment
Ape the enlightenment
 
British cultural materialism
British cultural materialismBritish cultural materialism
British cultural materialism
 
The Enlightenment Age and Thinkers.pptx
The Enlightenment Age and Thinkers.pptxThe Enlightenment Age and Thinkers.pptx
The Enlightenment Age and Thinkers.pptx
 
1-The State of Nature.pptx
1-The State of Nature.pptx1-The State of Nature.pptx
1-The State of Nature.pptx
 
The Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment
 
Ap ch. 17 enlight.teach.copy-lect.1
Ap ch. 17 enlight.teach.copy-lect.1Ap ch. 17 enlight.teach.copy-lect.1
Ap ch. 17 enlight.teach.copy-lect.1
 
Modernism
ModernismModernism
Modernism
 
Enlightenment
EnlightenmentEnlightenment
Enlightenment
 
Ch17sec2
Ch17sec2Ch17sec2
Ch17sec2
 

More from Jonathan Dresner

North Korea: Hangover of the 20th Century
North Korea: Hangover of the 20th CenturyNorth Korea: Hangover of the 20th Century
North Korea: Hangover of the 20th CenturyJonathan Dresner
 
Diaspora and Modernity: Infrastructure and Nationalism in Transnational Immi...
Diaspora and Modernity:  Infrastructure and Nationalism in Transnational Immi...Diaspora and Modernity:  Infrastructure and Nationalism in Transnational Immi...
Diaspora and Modernity: Infrastructure and Nationalism in Transnational Immi...Jonathan Dresner
 
Migration and modernity and identity in east asia (MWWHA 2016)
Migration and modernity and identity in east asia (MWWHA 2016)Migration and modernity and identity in east asia (MWWHA 2016)
Migration and modernity and identity in east asia (MWWHA 2016)Jonathan Dresner
 
Migration and Modernity in East Asia (ASPAC 2015)
Migration and Modernity in East Asia (ASPAC 2015)Migration and Modernity in East Asia (ASPAC 2015)
Migration and Modernity in East Asia (ASPAC 2015)Jonathan Dresner
 
Japanese food history: Traditions and Changes
Japanese food history: Traditions and ChangesJapanese food history: Traditions and Changes
Japanese food history: Traditions and ChangesJonathan Dresner
 
Japanese Historical Process in Anglophone Cinema
Japanese Historical Process in Anglophone CinemaJapanese Historical Process in Anglophone Cinema
Japanese Historical Process in Anglophone CinemaJonathan Dresner
 
Good Historical Writing: Some Thoughts
Good Historical Writing: Some ThoughtsGood Historical Writing: Some Thoughts
Good Historical Writing: Some ThoughtsJonathan Dresner
 
Hastily Assembled Lecture Notes on Terrorism and Chechnya
Hastily Assembled Lecture Notes on Terrorism and ChechnyaHastily Assembled Lecture Notes on Terrorism and Chechnya
Hastily Assembled Lecture Notes on Terrorism and ChechnyaJonathan Dresner
 
Two things about history (old version)
Two things about history (old version)Two things about history (old version)
Two things about history (old version)Jonathan Dresner
 
Revolutions and Historiography
Revolutions and HistoriographyRevolutions and Historiography
Revolutions and HistoriographyJonathan Dresner
 
Hideyoshi in World History
Hideyoshi in World HistoryHideyoshi in World History
Hideyoshi in World HistoryJonathan Dresner
 
Chinese Art and Ceramics: Sui, Tang and Song
Chinese Art and Ceramics: Sui, Tang and SongChinese Art and Ceramics: Sui, Tang and Song
Chinese Art and Ceramics: Sui, Tang and SongJonathan Dresner
 
Modern Japanese Food History
Modern Japanese Food HistoryModern Japanese Food History
Modern Japanese Food HistoryJonathan Dresner
 
The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
The Rubaiyat of Omar KhayyamThe Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
The Rubaiyat of Omar KhayyamJonathan Dresner
 
Trade and religion in the post-classical age
Trade and religion in the post-classical ageTrade and religion in the post-classical age
Trade and religion in the post-classical ageJonathan Dresner
 
Fall of Rome Historiography
Fall of Rome HistoriographyFall of Rome Historiography
Fall of Rome HistoriographyJonathan Dresner
 

More from Jonathan Dresner (20)

Two things about history
Two things about historyTwo things about history
Two things about history
 
North Korea: Hangover of the 20th Century
North Korea: Hangover of the 20th CenturyNorth Korea: Hangover of the 20th Century
North Korea: Hangover of the 20th Century
 
Diaspora and Modernity: Infrastructure and Nationalism in Transnational Immi...
Diaspora and Modernity:  Infrastructure and Nationalism in Transnational Immi...Diaspora and Modernity:  Infrastructure and Nationalism in Transnational Immi...
Diaspora and Modernity: Infrastructure and Nationalism in Transnational Immi...
 
20th Century Fascism
20th Century Fascism20th Century Fascism
20th Century Fascism
 
Migration and modernity and identity in east asia (MWWHA 2016)
Migration and modernity and identity in east asia (MWWHA 2016)Migration and modernity and identity in east asia (MWWHA 2016)
Migration and modernity and identity in east asia (MWWHA 2016)
 
Migration and Modernity in East Asia (ASPAC 2015)
Migration and Modernity in East Asia (ASPAC 2015)Migration and Modernity in East Asia (ASPAC 2015)
Migration and Modernity in East Asia (ASPAC 2015)
 
Japanese food history: Traditions and Changes
Japanese food history: Traditions and ChangesJapanese food history: Traditions and Changes
Japanese food history: Traditions and Changes
 
Japanese Historical Process in Anglophone Cinema
Japanese Historical Process in Anglophone CinemaJapanese Historical Process in Anglophone Cinema
Japanese Historical Process in Anglophone Cinema
 
Good Historical Writing: Some Thoughts
Good Historical Writing: Some ThoughtsGood Historical Writing: Some Thoughts
Good Historical Writing: Some Thoughts
 
Hastily Assembled Lecture Notes on Terrorism and Chechnya
Hastily Assembled Lecture Notes on Terrorism and ChechnyaHastily Assembled Lecture Notes on Terrorism and Chechnya
Hastily Assembled Lecture Notes on Terrorism and Chechnya
 
Declarations and Rights
Declarations and RightsDeclarations and Rights
Declarations and Rights
 
Mongols and Change
Mongols and ChangeMongols and Change
Mongols and Change
 
Two things about history (old version)
Two things about history (old version)Two things about history (old version)
Two things about history (old version)
 
Revolutions and Historiography
Revolutions and HistoriographyRevolutions and Historiography
Revolutions and Historiography
 
Hideyoshi in World History
Hideyoshi in World HistoryHideyoshi in World History
Hideyoshi in World History
 
Chinese Art and Ceramics: Sui, Tang and Song
Chinese Art and Ceramics: Sui, Tang and SongChinese Art and Ceramics: Sui, Tang and Song
Chinese Art and Ceramics: Sui, Tang and Song
 
Modern Japanese Food History
Modern Japanese Food HistoryModern Japanese Food History
Modern Japanese Food History
 
The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
The Rubaiyat of Omar KhayyamThe Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
 
Trade and religion in the post-classical age
Trade and religion in the post-classical ageTrade and religion in the post-classical age
Trade and religion in the post-classical age
 
Fall of Rome Historiography
Fall of Rome HistoriographyFall of Rome Historiography
Fall of Rome Historiography
 

Recently uploaded

BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17Celine George
 
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptxmary850239
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6Vanessa Camilleri
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroomSamsung Business USA
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NAT...
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF  NAT...LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF  NAT...
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NAT...pragatimahajan3
 
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptx
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptxBBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptx
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptxProf. Kanchan Kumari
 
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERPThe Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 

Recently uploaded (20)

BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database ReleaseIsrael Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
 
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
 
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
 
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
 
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical VariableChi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
 
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NAT...
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF  NAT...LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF  NAT...
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NAT...
 
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptx
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptxBBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptx
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptx
 
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERPThe Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
The Shop Floor Overview in the Odoo 17 ERP
 

Western Enlightenment

  • 2. Background • Rising Literacy Rates: 30-70% for males in urban European areas; 30-50% for rural males; 20-50% for females • Print culture: books, newspapers, journals, subscription series, lending libraries • Social Culture: salons, coffee houses and cafes, secret societies • Emergence of public opinion, and censorship • Middle-class movement: Rising numbers of urbanites, professionals, businessmen; critical of traditional aristocratic structures • Scientific Revolution and Spinoza’s monistic mechanism • Reformation, Wars of Religion
  • 3. Extent • Affordable: newspapers and broadsheets accessible to lower income readers; subscription-based book series; lending libraries • Popularization of Scientific Revolution (Bernard de Fontenelle, Plurality of Worlds; Voltaire), Engineering and technology • International Movement: Holland, England, France, Scotland, Americas, German-speaking territories, Russia • Political Influence: "Enlightened Despots" Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, Charles III of Spain, Joseph II of Austria, etc.
  • 4. Themes "we currently see 'Enlightenment' as the growth of a non- theocentric 'philosophy' of civil society, with political economy and a history of society and l'esprit humain among its outgrowths." -- JGA Pocock on John Robertson •Often hostile to religion, at least organized religion •Rationality, philosophical logic, and scientific process applied to Social issues. •Argumentation: Disagreement on many fundamental issues •Progress through education; progress linear •Equality and Protection of Rights
  • 5. J. G. A. POCOCK, HISTORIOGRAPHY AND ENLIGHTENMENT (2008) "In studying the intellectual history of the late 17th century and the 18th, we encounter a variety of statements made, and assumptions proposed, to which the term 'Enlightenment' may usefully be applied, but the meanings of the term shift as we apply it. The things are connected, but not continuous; they cannot be reduced to a single narrative; and we find ourselves using the word “Enlightenment” in a family of ways and talking about a family of phenomena, resembling and related to one another in a variety of ways that permit of various generalizations about them."
  • 6. Social Contracts • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) • Leviathan: "The natural state of men, before they were joined in society, was a war, and not simply, but a war of all against all." • State of Nature: "the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" • state exists as expression of social contract to raise our level of discipline and accomplishment. • Authoritarian commonwealth. • Sovereignty rests with monarch • Loss of rights preferable to loss of order • John Locke (1632-1704) • tabula rasa: born a blank slate • moral and intellectual development a function of environment • Equality and Progress • Christianity a rational moral system subordinating self-regard • people enter into the social contract to preserve, not surrender, their social rights. • Sovereignty rests with citizenry • Mutual Obligations: monarch must preserve rights of citizens, or citizens can and should replace monarch.
  • 7. François-Marie Arouet, aka Voltaire • Writer in multiple genres: novels, pamphlets, non- fiction, drama – Literary criticism – Scientific Popularizer, esp. Newton • Rich and intelligent woman, Émilie du Châtelet, who supported him and participated in writing projects • Candide: anti-war, against religious intolerance, argues against Locke/Spinoza idea that human nature fundamentally good and world a beneficent place. • Religion – Organized Church: "l'infame" – Deism
  • 8. Relgion and Anti-Religion • Voltaire argued for religious toleration, and was an architect of deism, including the idea of Jesus as "good fellow". • God as "Divine Watchmaker" (following Spinoza) and Final Arbiter • Freemasons spread deism as practice, social change through enlightenment. Members included Voltaire, Diderot, Duke of Orleans, Frederick the Great, W.A. Mozart, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Simon Bolivar. • Some argued that Christianity, stripped of superstition and institutional power, an acceptable Enlightenment morality. • Denis Diderot highly critical of Christianity, moving from deism to atheism -- the first true atheist in the Western tradition. Argued that belief in God neither required for understanding nor beneficial for human development • David Hume argued that Miracles cannot ever be accepted as true. • Immanuel Kant argued for rational basis of morality, the Categorical Imperative to treat individuals as ends in themselves rather than means to an end.
  • 9. Religion and Historiography •"Scepticism might end either in reducing Christ to a being describable in human terms, or in an irreducible claim to have met him and been reborn in the encounter. This is how Enlightenment left Protestant Christianity polarized between two extremes—the one unitarian and the other evangelical—a polarization that persists in the politics of the United States of America." - JGA Pocock
  • 10. Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu • 1721 Persian Letters a critique of French society in the voice of Turkish visitors, particularly Church and Monarchy. • 1748 The Spirit of the Laws attempted to apply scientific method to social relationships, categorizing states as "republics, suitable for small states and based on citizen involvement; monarchy, appropriate for middle-sized states and grounded in the ruling class's adherence to law; and despotism, apt for large empires and dependent on fear to inspire obedience." (Spielvogel 369) • Argues that systems of government must be adapted to cultural and historical environment, but that ideal form would include division of powers between executive, legislative and judicial authorities. • Monarchist, but believed in moderation of power, shared sovereignty
  • 11. The Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts and Trades • Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. 17 volumes of text, including 60,000 articles; 11 volumes of illustrations published between 1751 and 1772. Over 100 authors. • Practical knowledge, applied science and technology: catalog of "modern" life. Deliberate attempt to change society by intellectual discourse • Highly critical of society and government; highly annoying to the French government, "but contributors to the Encyclopedia learned to avoid censure by hiding controversial ideas in obscure articles or by cloaking them with irony." (KOT-B 401). • Sold by subscription, like a journal; Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson both readers. • Reduction in price for later editions made it accessible to wider range of society: "doctors, clergymen, teachers, lawyers and even military officers." (Spielvogel 370)
  • 12. Social Theory • Cesare Beccaria – punishment should be a deterrent to crime – torture - punishment before judgement - not legitimate – execution, especially public execution, both unsuccessful deterrent and damaging to public morals • Nicholas, Marquis de Condorcet – "nature has set no term to the perfection of human faculties; that the perfectibility of man is truly indefinite; and that the progress of this perfectibility, from now onwards independent of any power that might wish to halt it, has no other limit than the duration of the globe upon which nature has cast us. This progress will doubtless vary in speed, but it will never be reversed." – Ironically, written while he was fleeing the Revolutionary Terror, prior to his suicide in 1794.
  • 13. Economic Theory • Physiocrats, (François Quesnay and Pierre Dupont de Nemours, etc.) defined concept of supply and demand and benefit of individual self-interest. • laissez-faire (to let alone) instead of mercantilism. • Adam Smith, On the Wealth of Nations – argued for economic freedom, clear rejection of mercantilism and protectionism – assumes boundless wealth of nature, "limitless" natural resources. – creation of wealth through economic activity, not measured by specie – expanding economy based on pursuit of enlightened self-interest on the part of all individuals, specialization to maximize benefit, "Invisible Hand" of collective decisions – State should establish social and physical infrastructure: Army/Police, Judiciary and Public Works.
  • 14. Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Balance between sentiment and reason necessary, foreshadowing the Romantic movement. – Not a feminist, but a believer in sentiment as a necessary balance to rationality, childhood stage through which all pass, and that naturally irrational women provide critical emotional foundation to civilization. This made him immensely popular among women. – great advocate of breast feeding, leading to a sharp decline in the use of wet-nurses, particularly among upper and middle classes. • Radical democrat: majoritarian – The Social Contract (1762) argued that the general will of society was more important than the individual; freedom came from obedience to law – ideal community should be one which worked together to increase common good; the highest value was virtue. • Émile (1762): unforced pedagogy, learning from nature and action. Religious faith, which led him to split with Encyclopedists
  • 15. Sources • Background Image: "China Trade Painting" from the Waikoloa Hilton collection • Kagan, Ozment, Turner: Western Civilization: Brief Edition • Spielvogel, Western Civilization