18.1 on the eve of revolution

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18.1 on the eve of revolution

  1. 1. 18.1 On the Eve of Revolution
  2. 2. What led to the storming of theBastille, and therefore, to the start ofthe French Revolution?
  3. 3. A volatile atmosphere in France resulted froma widespread famine and the influence ofreformers inspired by Enlightenment ideas.The situation exploded on July 14, 1789.
  4. 4. ancien régime – the government in pre-revolution Franceestate – social classbourgeoisie – the middle class In 1789, France’s society was based on a system created in the Middle Ages. The ancien régime separated everyone in French society into one of three estates: First Estate Clergy Second Estate Nobility Third Estate The remainder of the population, including the bourgeoisie and rural peasants
  5. 5. The first two estates enjoyed most of the wealth and privileges of France. The Church The nobility• Owned 10% of • Had rights to top jobs the land in the government,• Collected tithes the army, the courts, and the Church• Paid no direct taxes to the state • Paid no taxes
  6. 6. The Third Estate was the most diverse and made up 95% of the population in France.• Bourgeoisie and Paid taxes on everything middle class from land to soap• Urban workers Owed fees and services• Rural peasants dating back to medieval times When the ideals of the Enlightenment spread among the Third Estate, many people began to question the existing social order.
  7. 7. deficit spending – when a government spends more moneythan it takes inEconomic troubles added to the social unrest andheightened tensions. Years of deficit spendingcreated a government that was deeply in debt. The money from the government had been spent on: • Louis XIV’s court • The Seven Years’ War • The American Revolution • Rising costs of goods and servicesBad harvests in the 1780s made it harder to recoupthis money.
  8. 8. • Louis XVI – king of France from 1774 to 1792; executed in 1793 To solve the financial crisis, the government had to increase taxes, reduce expenses, or both. The first two estates resisted any attempts to make them pay taxes. Louis XV ran up more debt. Louis XVI was weak but attempted some economic reforms.
  9. 9. • Jacques Necker – a financial advisor to Louis XVI • Reduce extravagant Louis XVI appointed court spending Jacques Necker as his financial • Reform government advisor. Necker • Abolish tariffs on made several recommendations internal trade to reduce the debt: • Tax the First and Second Estates When Necker proposed taxing the First and SecondEstates, the nobles and high clergy forced Louis XVI to dismiss him.
  10. 10. • Estates-General – the legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates The pressure for reforms mounted, but the powerful classes demanded that the king summon the Estates-General. • In the meantime, The nobles hoped France was on the that the Estates- verge of bankruptcy. General could bring the absolute monarch • Bread riots were under their control spreading and nobles and guarantee their continued to fight own privileges. against taxes.
  11. 11. • cahier – notebook used during the French Revolution to record grievances Before the meeting, Louis had all the estates prepare cahiers listing their grievances. • Fairer taxes! Many delegates from the Third Estate • Freedom of the press! went to solve the • Regular meetings! financial crisis but also to insist on reforms.
  12. 12. The voting system created a stalemate, because each estate traditionally had one vote. 1 vote 1 voteFirst Estate Second Estate 1 vote Third Estate The Third Estate moved to create a fairer system in which the votes were counted by heads rather than estates.
  13. 13. • Tennis Court Oath – an oath taken by the members of the National Assembly to meet wherever the circumstances might require until they had created a constitutionIn June, 1789, after weeks of stalemate, members of the Third Estate declared themselves to be the National Assembly and the true representatives of the people of France. The members of the They were National Assembly locked out of pledged, by the their meeting Tennis Court Oath, hall and moved to continue to meet to a nearby until a constitution tennis court. was established.
  14. 14. • Bastille – fortress in Paris used as a prison; French Recolution began when Parisians stormed it in 1789 Rumors abounded that the royal troops were about to occupy Paris. • On July 14, 1789, crowds gathered around the Bastille demanding weapons and gunpowder that they thought were stored there. • The storming and fall of the Bastille represented a challenge to the regime.
  15. 15. What led to the storming of theBastille, and therefore, to the start ofthe French Revolution?Inequalities as well as hunger and poverty, ledthe third estate to attack the nobles anddemand a new constitution. The tenseatmosphere and the sense that royal troopswould occupy Paris led the Parisians to stormthe Batilles in search of weapons.

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