The French Revolution: The Rise and Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte           CHAPTER 18
Hero, Dictator, Conqueror, Menace                           Napoleon Crossing the Alps                           by Jacque...
Military Rise 1793, Captured Toulon from Royalists and the  British and promoted from Captain to Brigadier  General at 24...
Coup d’etat Abbe Sieyes (―What is the 3rd Estate‖) conspired with Napoleon to  replace the Directory. Napoleon becomes ―...
Domestic Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleonic Code   Affirmed ―natural authority‖ of husband over wife         Married wom...
Concordat with Pope 1801   Pope had right to appoint and depose Bishopsand discipline    French clergy   Pope would for...
Emperor Napoleon I 2 December 1804 Napoleon crowns himself Emperor at the Cathedral of Notre Dame.
Napoleonic Wars 1805 Russians, Prussians, Austrians, Swedes and British  allied to contain France. Napoleon’s military a...
Napoleon’s Empire by 1811
Consequences of Empire Brought the practical consequences of French Revolution to Europe    Powerful, centralizing state...
Continental System: Beginning of Napoleon’s Fall 1806 Napoleon sought to starve the British into  submission by and embar...
Napoleon Dreams of Rome Napoleon’s ambition   Recreate Roman empire   Rule Rome from Paris     Divorces Josephine    ...
New Militaries Emerge Prussia   Demand for rigorous practical training   Citizen army– no mercenaries   Support from S...
The Third Of May 1808    Francisco Goya
Invasion of Russia 1811 Tsar Alexander I turned blind eye to Russian trading    with Britain   Napoleon collected ―Grand...
Last Battles Battle of Nations, Leipzig October 1813   Austrians, Russians, Swedes and Prussians defeat Napoleon March ...
Brief Return, Final Defeat Victorious Allies restore a Bourbon King to throne of  France, Louis XVIII (brother of Louis X...
Haitian Revolution Caribbean Islands & French sugar plantations   Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Saint-Domingue   Intense ...
Toussaint L’Ouverture   Leader of indigenous forces for independence   Defeated French planters in 1797   British 1798...
Touissaint L’Ouverture                         Jean-Jacques Dessalines
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Chapter 18 b the french revolution and napoleon

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Chapter 18 b the french revolution and napoleon

  1. 1. The French Revolution: The Rise and Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte CHAPTER 18
  2. 2. Hero, Dictator, Conqueror, Menace Napoleon Crossing the Alps by Jacques-Louis David, 1801
  3. 3. Military Rise 1793, Captured Toulon from Royalists and the British and promoted from Captain to Brigadier General at 24 Rebuffed an uprising against the Directory (group of 5 men that replaced the Committee of Public Safety) Marched into Italy and defeated Austrians, forcing them to withdraw. Attacked British forces in Egypt. Escaped from British by leaving his army surrounded.
  4. 4. Coup d’etat Abbe Sieyes (―What is the 3rd Estate‖) conspired with Napoleon to replace the Directory. Napoleon becomes ―temporary consul‖ on 9 November 1799.  ―confidence from below, authority from above‖ Napoleon would not have been able to rise above the rank of major in the pre-revolutionary French army because he did not have enough money to purchase his rank. As a a result of the abolition of rank purchase, Napoleon was able to rise on his own merits— making him a son of the Revolution. But Napoleon was unwilling to wait for the democratic process.  First Consul  Second Constitution  White male suffrage for literate men  Indirect elections  1802 Consul for Life ratified by Plebecite  Centralized authority
  5. 5. Domestic Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleonic Code  Affirmed ―natural authority‖ of husband over wife  Married women required husband’s permission to sell property, own a business or enter a profession  Unequal divorce: men- adultery of wife. Women: only if a man moved his mistress into the family home.  No paternity suits to establish male parentage of illegitimate children  Criminal Code  Citizens are equal before the law  Outlawed arbitrary arrest and imprisonment (required independent determination of reasons for arrest)  Abolished cruel punishments like branding and cutting off hands  Educational Reform  Established ―lycees” (high schools) in every major town.  Institute of France  Military Academy  Teacher Education
  6. 6. Concordat with Pope 1801  Pope had right to appoint and depose Bishopsand discipline French clergy  Pope would forego claims to French land once owned by church and seized during French Revolution  Did not revoke principle of religious freedom  Did ease worries of religious conservatives whose support Napoleon needed to remain in power
  7. 7. Emperor Napoleon I 2 December 1804 Napoleon crowns himself Emperor at the Cathedral of Notre Dame.
  8. 8. Napoleonic Wars 1805 Russians, Prussians, Austrians, Swedes and British allied to contain France. Napoleon’s military advantages  Conscript army  Revolutionary Militias  Promotions based on talent and merit not birth or patronage  Domestic economy geared to support of military Battle of Austerlitz 5 December 1805  Napoleon defeats combined forces of Austria and Russia  Rules the continent from Portugal to Russia Allies and client states  Rome, Papal states, Confederation of the Rhine (principalities in Germany and part of Poland); Dalmatian territories (Croatia)  Spain, Naples, Holland: Napoleon’s brother, brother-in-law and general installed as monarchs.
  9. 9. Napoleon’s Empire by 1811
  10. 10. Consequences of Empire Brought the practical consequences of French Revolution to Europe  Powerful, centralizing state and an end to old systems of privilege  Changed terms of government service: merit vs. patronage or birth  Ended nobility monopoly on officer corps  State sponsored military  Training  Support beyond pay (food, clothing, armaments)  Defense taxes ―liberty and requisitions‖  Universal conscription  Elimination of feudal and clerical courts  State support for education on a broad scale
  11. 11. Continental System: Beginning of Napoleon’s Fall 1806 Napoleon sought to starve the British into submission by and embargo on continental trade in British goods 1807 British Navy blockades the continent Continental trade was hurt more than British trade  WHY?  British global colonies  Trade with South America
  12. 12. Napoleon Dreams of Rome Napoleon’s ambition  Recreate Roman empire  Rule Rome from Paris  Divorces Josephine  Marries Marie Louse (great niece of Marie Antoinette)  Loses support of former revolutionaries in France, enlightenment thinkers on the continent, and liberals at home and abroad
  13. 13. New Militaries Emerge Prussia  Demand for rigorous practical training  Citizen army– no mercenaries  Support from State Effect of Napoleon’s defeats on allies  Defeat at Trafalgar 1805 led to rift with Spain Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808  Peninsular Wars  British and Spanish insurgents  French atrocities
  14. 14. The Third Of May 1808 Francisco Goya
  15. 15. Invasion of Russia 1811 Tsar Alexander I turned blind eye to Russian trading with Britain Napoleon collected ―Grande Armee‖ of 600,000 soldiers to invade Russia Russian army was outnumbered and withdrew deep into interior of Russia, burning land which Napoleon’s army might use Russian partisans burned Moscow rather than allow it to be conquered by Napoleon. Insurgent strikes on sick and demoralized army of France By December 1812 French army had dwindled to a few thousand
  16. 16. Last Battles Battle of Nations, Leipzig October 1813  Austrians, Russians, Swedes and Prussians defeat Napoleon March 31 Tsar Alexander & King Frederick William III of Prussia marched into Paris Napoleon sent to exile on Elba
  17. 17. Brief Return, Final Defeat Victorious Allies restore a Bourbon King to throne of France, Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI) Napoleon escaped from Elba and Louis XVIII flees France. Allies meeting at Congress of Vienna hastily organize and army against Napoleon.  Battle of Waterloo June 15-18, 1815  Napoleon defeated by Britain and Prussia  Exiled to Saint Helena and died in 1821
  18. 18. Haitian Revolution Caribbean Islands & French sugar plantations  Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Saint-Domingue  Intense competition with British and Spanish Saint-Domingue  40,000 whites of different social classes  30,000 free people of color  500,000 slaves 1790 Delegation of Free People of Color to Paris asking to be seated in the General Assembly.  Refusal to seat delegation caused unrest in Saint-Domingue  Vincent Oge` and other leaders of delegation  Broken on the wheel and decapitated August 1791 Largest slave rebellion in History?  Spanish and British poised to take over the island  French promised citizenship to Free People of Color and freedom to slaves
  19. 19. Toussaint L’Ouverture Leader of indigenous forces for independence Defeated French planters in 1797 British 1798 Spanish 1801 Haitian Constitution  Abolished slavery  Established Christianity  Toussaint –governor for life  Allegiance to France but French cannot interfere in Haiti internal affairs 1802 Toussaint captured 20,000 French troops  Yellow Fever  Insurgency  Atrocities French troops recalled in 1803 Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares independent state of Haiti in 1804
  20. 20. Touissaint L’Ouverture Jean-Jacques Dessalines

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