The French Revolution: The Rise and Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte CHAPTER 18
Hero, Dictator, Conqueror, Menace Napoleon Crossing the Alps by Jacques-Louis David, 1801
Military Rise 1793, Captured Toulon from Royalists and the British and promoted from Captain to Brigadier General at 24 Rebuffed an uprising against the Directory (group of 5 men that replaced the Committee of Public Safety) Marched into Italy and defeated Austrians, forcing them to withdraw. Attacked British forces in Egypt. Escaped from British by leaving his army surrounded.
Coup d’etat Abbe Sieyes (―What is the 3rd Estate‖) conspired with Napoleon to replace the Directory. Napoleon becomes ―temporary consul‖ on 9 November 1799. ―confidence from below, authority from above‖ Napoleon would not have been able to rise above the rank of major in the pre-revolutionary French army because he did not have enough money to purchase his rank. As a a result of the abolition of rank purchase, Napoleon was able to rise on his own merits— making him a son of the Revolution. But Napoleon was unwilling to wait for the democratic process. First Consul Second Constitution White male suffrage for literate men Indirect elections 1802 Consul for Life ratified by Plebecite Centralized authority
Domestic Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleonic Code Affirmed ―natural authority‖ of husband over wife Married women required husband’s permission to sell property, own a business or enter a profession Unequal divorce: men- adultery of wife. Women: only if a man moved his mistress into the family home. No paternity suits to establish male parentage of illegitimate children Criminal Code Citizens are equal before the law Outlawed arbitrary arrest and imprisonment (required independent determination of reasons for arrest) Abolished cruel punishments like branding and cutting off hands Educational Reform Established ―lycees” (high schools) in every major town. Institute of France Military Academy Teacher Education
Concordat with Pope 1801 Pope had right to appoint and depose Bishopsand discipline French clergy Pope would forego claims to French land once owned by church and seized during French Revolution Did not revoke principle of religious freedom Did ease worries of religious conservatives whose support Napoleon needed to remain in power
Emperor Napoleon I 2 December 1804 Napoleon crowns himself Emperor at the Cathedral of Notre Dame.
Napoleonic Wars 1805 Russians, Prussians, Austrians, Swedes and British allied to contain France. Napoleon’s military advantages Conscript army Revolutionary Militias Promotions based on talent and merit not birth or patronage Domestic economy geared to support of military Battle of Austerlitz 5 December 1805 Napoleon defeats combined forces of Austria and Russia Rules the continent from Portugal to Russia Allies and client states Rome, Papal states, Confederation of the Rhine (principalities in Germany and part of Poland); Dalmatian territories (Croatia) Spain, Naples, Holland: Napoleon’s brother, brother-in-law and general installed as monarchs.
Consequences of Empire Brought the practical consequences of French Revolution to Europe Powerful, centralizing state and an end to old systems of privilege Changed terms of government service: merit vs. patronage or birth Ended nobility monopoly on officer corps State sponsored military Training Support beyond pay (food, clothing, armaments) Defense taxes ―liberty and requisitions‖ Universal conscription Elimination of feudal and clerical courts State support for education on a broad scale
Continental System: Beginning of Napoleon’s Fall 1806 Napoleon sought to starve the British into submission by and embargo on continental trade in British goods 1807 British Navy blockades the continent Continental trade was hurt more than British trade WHY? British global colonies Trade with South America
Napoleon Dreams of Rome Napoleon’s ambition Recreate Roman empire Rule Rome from Paris Divorces Josephine Marries Marie Louse (great niece of Marie Antoinette) Loses support of former revolutionaries in France, enlightenment thinkers on the continent, and liberals at home and abroad
New Militaries Emerge Prussia Demand for rigorous practical training Citizen army– no mercenaries Support from State Effect of Napoleon’s defeats on allies Defeat at Trafalgar 1805 led to rift with Spain Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 Peninsular Wars British and Spanish insurgents French atrocities
Invasion of Russia 1811 Tsar Alexander I turned blind eye to Russian trading with Britain Napoleon collected ―Grande Armee‖ of 600,000 soldiers to invade Russia Russian army was outnumbered and withdrew deep into interior of Russia, burning land which Napoleon’s army might use Russian partisans burned Moscow rather than allow it to be conquered by Napoleon. Insurgent strikes on sick and demoralized army of France By December 1812 French army had dwindled to a few thousand
Last Battles Battle of Nations, Leipzig October 1813 Austrians, Russians, Swedes and Prussians defeat Napoleon March 31 Tsar Alexander & King Frederick William III of Prussia marched into Paris Napoleon sent to exile on Elba
Brief Return, Final Defeat Victorious Allies restore a Bourbon King to throne of France, Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI) Napoleon escaped from Elba and Louis XVIII flees France. Allies meeting at Congress of Vienna hastily organize and army against Napoleon. Battle of Waterloo June 15-18, 1815 Napoleon defeated by Britain and Prussia Exiled to Saint Helena and died in 1821
Haitian Revolution Caribbean Islands & French sugar plantations Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Saint-Domingue Intense competition with British and Spanish Saint-Domingue 40,000 whites of different social classes 30,000 free people of color 500,000 slaves 1790 Delegation of Free People of Color to Paris asking to be seated in the General Assembly. Refusal to seat delegation caused unrest in Saint-Domingue Vincent Oge` and other leaders of delegation Broken on the wheel and decapitated August 1791 Largest slave rebellion in History? Spanish and British poised to take over the island French promised citizenship to Free People of Color and freedom to slaves
Toussaint L’Ouverture Leader of indigenous forces for independence Defeated French planters in 1797 British 1798 Spanish 1801 Haitian Constitution Abolished slavery Established Christianity Toussaint –governor for life Allegiance to France but French cannot interfere in Haiti internal affairs 1802 Toussaint captured 20,000 French troops Yellow Fever Insurgency Atrocities French troops recalled in 1803 Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares independent state of Haiti in 1804