The Brain & Behavior


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Basic understanding of the brain & nervous system & its effects on behavior for a General Psychology class.

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The Brain & Behavior

  1. 2. The Brain Behavior and
  2. 3. The Basic Structure of the Nervous System <ul><li>The Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Body </li></ul><ul><li>Axon Hillock </li></ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul><ul><li>Nodes of Ranvier </li></ul><ul><li>Myelin Sheath </li></ul><ul><li>Axon Terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic Vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse </li></ul><ul><li>Glial Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Myelination </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Glial Cells <ul><li>Functions of Glial Cells </li></ul><ul><li>There are 9-times more glial cells than neurons in the brain. They communicate with neurons and each other about the messages traveling among neurons. They can alter signals at the synapse and influence where synapses are formed. They may be critical in forming memories and repairing nerve damage and play a major role in diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Neural Impulse <ul><li>The direction of the Action Potential is always left to right. When the neuron is not firing it is in Resting Potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons have either excitatory or inhibitory influence on each other. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Myelin Sheath
  6. 7. The Synapse Chemical Synapse Electrical Synapse
  7. 8. Biochemistry <ul><li>Neurotansmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Neurohormones </li></ul><ul><li>Neuromodulators </li></ul><ul><li>Neuropeptides </li></ul><ul><li>The Lock & Key Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The Classical Biochemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine GABA </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine Glutamate </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin (5-HT) </li></ul><ul><li>The Endorphins </li></ul><ul><li>Epinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine </li></ul>
  8. 9. Biochemical Effects <ul><li>Nervous System Chemicals & Their Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Type Function Effects Where Produced Examples </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotrans- Enable neurons to Diverse, depend- Brain, spinal cord, Serotonin, </li></ul><ul><li>mitters excite or inhibit ing on which peripheral nerves, Dopamine, </li></ul><ul><li> each other circuits are act- certain glands Norepinepherine </li></ul><ul><li>ivated or sup- </li></ul><ul><li>pressed </li></ul><ul><li>Endorphins Usually modulate Reduce pain, pro- Brain, spinal cord (Several varieties) </li></ul><ul><li> the effects of mote pleasure; </li></ul><ul><li> of neurotrans- also linked to </li></ul><ul><li> mitters learning, memory </li></ul><ul><li>& other functions </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones Affect function- Dozens, ranging Primarily in the Epinephrine, nor- </li></ul><ul><li> ing of target from promotion endocrine glands epinephrine, </li></ul><ul><li> organs & tissues of digestion to estrogens, </li></ul><ul><li> regulation of androgens </li></ul><ul><li>metabolism </li></ul>
  9. 10. Pleasure Drive Motivation Fight – or - Flight Appetite, Sex, Aggression Cognitive Function, Mood, Emotion Health Functions, Growth & Well-Being, Homeostasis Anxiety, Irritability Biochemical Interactions Dopamine Norepinephrine Serotonin
  10. 11. The Effects of Drugs <ul><li>Drugs increase or decrease the action of the neurotrans-mitters at the synapse </li></ul><ul><li>Some (e.g. cocaine) stop reuptake, others take the place of specific neurotransmitters. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Organization of the Nervous System Nervous System Central Nervous System (Processes, interprets & Stores information; issues Orders to muscles, glands & organs) Peripheral Nervous System (Transmits information to & from the CNS) Brain Spinal Cord (Controls the brain & peripheral nerves) Somatic Nervous System (Controls skeletal muscles) Autonomic Nervous System (Regulates glands, blood Vessels & internal organs) Sympathetic Nervous System (Mobilizes body for action, Energy output; fight-or- Flight) Parasympathetic Nervous System (Conserves energy, Maintains a quiet state) Afferent Pathways (Go to CNS) Efferent Pathways (From CNS)
  12. 13. The Brain The Brain contains between 100 Billion & 1 Trillion Neurons with more than 1000 Synapses per Neuron.
  13. 15. Brain Scan The Brain Processes About 400 BILLION Bits of Information At A Time. We're Aware of Only About 2000 Bits.
  14. 16. Beginning at the Top <ul><li>Left Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>The Analytic Hemisphere. Dominant in most people. Interprets </li></ul><ul><li>actions, moods, & thought </li></ul><ul><li>processes. Constructs </li></ul><ul><li>theories about actions & </li></ul><ul><li>feelings, & tries to bring </li></ul><ul><li>order & unity to our </li></ul><ul><li>conscious lives. It is </li></ul><ul><li>specialized for language </li></ul><ul><li>in 95% of right-handed & </li></ul><ul><li>75% of left-handed. Makes </li></ul><ul><li>causal inferences. Solves problems via established methods & well-ordered plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Right Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>The Synthetic Hemisphere. Specialized in facial recognition. Has its own consciousness. Perceives </li></ul><ul><li>melodies, patterns, & analyzes </li></ul><ul><li>nonverbal patterns. Judges </li></ul><ul><li>grammatical correctness of a </li></ul><ul><li>sentence. It is holistic and </li></ul><ul><li>has limited language skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Has a larger volume of an </li></ul><ul><li>“ association cortex” for </li></ul><ul><li>complex information pro- </li></ul><ul><li>cessing. It makes leaps of insight. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Corpus Callosum <ul><li>The fibers connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Contralateral Control </li></ul><ul><li>The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>What purpose does Contralateral Control serve? </li></ul>
  16. 18. The Central Core <ul><li>The Hindbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>The Medulla, the Pons, and the Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>The Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>The Thalamus, the Hypothalamus, and the Reticular Formation </li></ul>
  17. 19. The Limbic System <ul><li>Considered the “Seat of the Emotions” </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory Bulb </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul>
  18. 20. Working Memory; Word & Speech Perception (Left); Visual & Auditory Words; Associates Words; Analysis & Meanings of Items; Self-Analysis; Object Identity; Recognizes Facial Features; Action Plans Encodes, Stores, & Recalls Sequences; Processes Serial Order Information Within the Context of a Motor Task; Recognizes & Remembers Sequence of Events in Time. Receives Sensory Input from the Joints, Muscles, Bones, Skin, Touch, Pressure, Pain, & Internal Organs Attention to Details; Visual & Auditory Words; Discriminates Familiar & Un- familiar Stimuli; STM for Abstract Symbols; Sentence Memory; Visual Orienting; Concentration; Shifting of Attention Organizes Visual Information; Activates &Processes Color, Shape, &Motion; Creates Visual Images; Maps & Analyzes Visual Information; Processes Visual Words Listening to Words; Working Memory; Processes Words Visually & Auditorially; Visual Computation & Motion; Primary Auditory Cortex; Monitors Speech; Generates Verbs; Speech Output Word Production & Grammatical Processing; Semantic Analysis; Motor Patterns for Speech Production Understanding & Expression of Language; Listening to Words; Semantic Analysis & Interpretation The Cerebral Cortex The Cerebral Cortex is the outer &quot;Gray Matter&quot; & the &quot;Association Areas.&quot;
  19. 21. The Brain/Computer Connection <ul><li>The Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Operates Sequentially. </li></ul><ul><li>Has Open and Closed Gates. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes information very quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the computer are reliable but removing 1 or 2 can disrupt processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Each gate receives a single input and sends that input on. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes only precise input. </li></ul><ul><li>The Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Operates sequentially and in parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>Has Open, Closed, and Almost Gates. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes information slowly. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons are somewhat unreliable, but deletion of quite a few is not likely to make a major difference in behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons receive input from thousands of other neurons and connects to thousands of other neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes patterns. </li></ul>
  20. 22. The Endocrine System <ul><li>The Major Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Called “the glands of personality” in the early 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Pineal Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior & Anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Gonads </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal Glands </li></ul>
  21. 23. Pineal Gland <ul><li>Secretion: Melatonin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: Reproduction & Sleep-Wake Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Low Melatonin: Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>High Melatonin: Decreased Motor Activity, Fatigue, & Lower Body Temperature </li></ul>
  22. 24. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Secretions: </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior Lobe: Oxytocin, Vasopressin, & Antidiuretic Hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior Lobe: Hormones Include Thyroid-stimulating Hormone, ACTH, FSH, & Prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>Affects growth and the other glands </li></ul>
  23. 25. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Secretions: Thyroxin & Triiodothyronine </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates Metabolism </li></ul>
  24. 26. Parathyroid Gland <ul><li>Secretion: Parathyroid Hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Calcium Levels </li></ul><ul><li>High Calcium Levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Low Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased Sex Drive </li></ul>
  25. 27. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>Secretions: Epinephrine & Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates Energy Levels & Electrolite & Fluid Balance, Kidney & Sexual Function </li></ul><ul><li>High Epinephrine: </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Excess Sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Tachychardia </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety & Nervous Shaking </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Loss </li></ul>
  26. 28. Pancreas <ul><li>Secretions: Insulin, Glucagon, & Somatostatin </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Blood Sugar & Glucose Metabolism & Digestive Secretions </li></ul>
  27. 29. Reproductive Glands <ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Secretions: Estrogen, Progestrone, & Androstenedione </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Oogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Testes </li></ul><ul><li>Secretions: Testosterone & Other Androgens </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Spermatogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Low Testosterone: Decreases Sex Drive </li></ul><ul><li>High Testosterone: Heightened Bisexuality </li></ul>