Behavioral Neuroscience Chapter  2
Biology and Behavior <ul><li>The term  behavioral neuroscience  describes the work of scientists from several disciplines ...
The Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>The  evolutionary perspective  > role of physiological structures & behaviors; adapta...
Natural Selection <ul><li>Natural selection  = the most fit organisms survive; they adapt best to the environment; pass on...
The Nervous System <ul><li>We use the processes of sensing, processing, and responding to interact with the environment.  ...
The CNS <ul><li>The  spinal cord  is composed of  sensory  (afferent or ascending) and  motor  (efferent or descending) ne...
CNS Nerves
CNS Nerves <ul><li>A reflex arc occurs in less than 1/1000 of a second </li></ul><ul><li>A typical “fast” response that us...
CNS Nerves The Cranial Nerves <ul><li>Olfactory </li></ul><ul><li>Optic </li></ul><ul><li>Oculomotor </li></ul><ul><li>Tro...
The PNS <ul><li>PNS > the  somatic division  and the  autonomic division .  </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic division  > sensory ...
Divisions of the Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spin...
Neurons: The Basic Cells <ul><li>The cells that make up the nervous system are called  neurons . </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons...
Structure of a Neuron
Structure of a Neuron Bipolar >  interneurons  or  association  neurons Unipolar > usually sensory neurons Multipolar > te...
The Synapse
Key Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Acetylcholine (ACh) </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul><ul><li...
Refractory Period <ul><li>Neurotransmitters must be removed from the synapse before another signal can be transmitted.  </...
Agonists and Antagonists <ul><li>Agonists  > drugs that promote the action of a neurotransmitter. </li></ul><ul><li>Antago...
Neuromodulators <ul><li>Neuromodulators  have more widespread and indirect effects than neurotransmitters. </li></ul><ul><...
The Action Potential The reversal in electrical charge is known as the  action potential.
The Brain: A Closer Look <ul><li>Phrenology is  not  a science. Popularized in the 1800s by Franz Joseph Gall </li></ul><u...
The Brain: A Closer Look
The Brain: A Closer Look <ul><li>Early studies stimulated or removed portions of the cortex.  </li></ul>
The Brain <ul><li>The brain is divided into the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain. </li></ul>
The Hindbrain <ul><li>The most primitive of the three main divisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Major structures >  medulla, pons,...
The Brain Balance and movement
The Midbrain <ul><li>The midbrain, pons, and medulla lie on top of the spinal cord. Together they make up the brain stem. ...
The Forebrain <ul><li>The forebrain consists of  subcortical structures  and the two hemispheres of the  cerebral cortex <...
The Corpus Callosum <ul><li>Millions of myelinated axons connecting the brain’s  hemispheres </li></ul>
Subcortical Structures   Thalamus Like a relay station to areas of the cortex
Subcortical Structures   Thalamus
Subcortical Structures   Hypothalamus
The Cortex <ul><li>The cerebral cortex covers the forebrain and is divided into four lobes:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frontal...
Occipital lobe Visual center
Parietal lobe Includes somatosensory cortex (input from environment) Helps process perceptions
Temporal lobe <ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding     language </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul>
Frontal lobe <ul><li>You are who you are because of this lobe.  </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions <...
Somatosensory and Motor Cortexes
More About the Brain <ul><li>Aphasia </li></ul>
More About the Brain <ul><li>Aphasia </li></ul>CAT Scan
More About the Brain Apraxia of lid opening (blepharospasm) Apraxia Loss or impairment of the ability to execute complex, ...
Split-Brain and Lateralization
Split-Brain Experiment
The Endocrine System <ul><li>Endocrine system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ductless glands that regulate growth, reproduction, m...
The Endocrine System <ul><li>Cortisol: </li></ul><ul><li>CortiSlim? </li></ul>
The Endocrine System <ul><li>“ Cortisol is the body's main stress hormone, and is required for many vital purposes -- prop...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199299912883466 2[1]

1,297 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199299912883466 2[1]

  1. 1. Behavioral Neuroscience Chapter 2
  2. 2. Biology and Behavior <ul><li>The term behavioral neuroscience describes the work of scientists from several disciplines who work to understand how the nervous system is related to behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with: </li></ul>Sensing Processing Responding
  3. 3. The Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>The evolutionary perspective > role of physiological structures & behaviors; adaptation to the environment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Natural Selection <ul><li>Natural selection = the most fit organisms survive; they adapt best to the environment; pass on genes </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Nervous System <ul><li>We use the processes of sensing, processing, and responding to interact with the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The nervous system is divided into two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>central nervous system (CNS-brain and spinal cord) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peripheral nervous system (PNS-all parts of the nervous system outside the CNS) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The CNS <ul><li>The spinal cord is composed of sensory (afferent or ascending) and motor (efferent or descending) nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>Interneurons may connect sensory and motor neurons. </li></ul>
  7. 7. CNS Nerves
  8. 8. CNS Nerves <ul><li>A reflex arc occurs in less than 1/1000 of a second </li></ul><ul><li>A typical “fast” response that uses brain pathways takes about 1/10th of a second </li></ul>
  9. 9. CNS Nerves The Cranial Nerves <ul><li>Olfactory </li></ul><ul><li>Optic </li></ul><ul><li>Oculomotor </li></ul><ul><li>Trochlear </li></ul><ul><li>Trigeminal </li></ul><ul><li>Abducens </li></ul><ul><li>Facial </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory-vestibular </li></ul><ul><li>Glossopharyngeal </li></ul><ul><li>Vagus </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Accessory </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoglossal </li></ul>
  10. 10. The PNS <ul><li>PNS > the somatic division and the autonomic division . </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic division > sensory nerves run from receptors to the brain; motor nerves run to the glands and muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic division > sympathetic division, which mobilizes body's resources, and the parasympathetic division which returns body to homeostasis . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Divisions of the Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Neurons: The Basic Cells <ul><li>The cells that make up the nervous system are called neurons . </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons are composed of: </li></ul><ul><li>– dendrites > receive signals from adjacent neurons </li></ul><ul><li>– cell body or soma </li></ul><ul><li>– axon > transmits signals </li></ul><ul><li>– terminal buttons > contain neurotransmitters. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Structure of a Neuron
  14. 14. Structure of a Neuron Bipolar > interneurons or association neurons Unipolar > usually sensory neurons Multipolar > tend to be motor neurons All neurons carry impulses in only one direction
  15. 15. The Synapse
  16. 16. Key Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Acetylcholine (ACh) </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul><ul><li>Endorphins </li></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma amino butryic acid (GABA) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Refractory Period <ul><li>Neurotransmitters must be removed from the synapse before another signal can be transmitted. </li></ul>Removal is accomplished either by breakdown or by reuptake .
  18. 18. Agonists and Antagonists <ul><li>Agonists > drugs that promote the action of a neurotransmitter. </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonists > drugs that inhibit the action of a neurotransmitter. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Neuromodulators <ul><li>Neuromodulators have more widespread and indirect effects than neurotransmitters. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuromodulators also influence transmission between cells. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Action Potential The reversal in electrical charge is known as the action potential.
  21. 21. The Brain: A Closer Look <ul><li>Phrenology is not a science. Popularized in the 1800s by Franz Joseph Gall </li></ul><ul><li>Gall > skills and characteristics determined by id’ing bumps on the skull. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Brain: A Closer Look
  23. 23. The Brain: A Closer Look <ul><li>Early studies stimulated or removed portions of the cortex. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Brain <ul><li>The brain is divided into the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Hindbrain <ul><li>The most primitive of the three main divisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Major structures > medulla, pons, and cerebellum. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Brain Balance and movement
  27. 27. The Midbrain <ul><li>The midbrain, pons, and medulla lie on top of the spinal cord. Together they make up the brain stem. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Forebrain <ul><li>The forebrain consists of subcortical structures and the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Corpus Callosum <ul><li>Millions of myelinated axons connecting the brain’s hemispheres </li></ul>
  30. 30. Subcortical Structures Thalamus Like a relay station to areas of the cortex
  31. 31. Subcortical Structures Thalamus
  32. 32. Subcortical Structures Hypothalamus
  33. 33. The Cortex <ul><li>The cerebral cortex covers the forebrain and is divided into four lobes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frontal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parietal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temporal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and occipital </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Occipital lobe Visual center
  35. 35. Parietal lobe Includes somatosensory cortex (input from environment) Helps process perceptions
  36. 36. Temporal lobe <ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding language </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul>
  37. 37. Frontal lobe <ul><li>You are who you are because of this lobe. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Using Language </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Cortex </li></ul>
  38. 38. Somatosensory and Motor Cortexes
  39. 39. More About the Brain <ul><li>Aphasia </li></ul>
  40. 40. More About the Brain <ul><li>Aphasia </li></ul>CAT Scan
  41. 41. More About the Brain Apraxia of lid opening (blepharospasm) Apraxia Loss or impairment of the ability to execute complex, coordinated movements without impairment of the muscles or senses.
  42. 42. Split-Brain and Lateralization
  43. 43. Split-Brain Experiment
  44. 44. The Endocrine System <ul><li>Endocrine system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ductless glands that regulate growth, reproduction, metabolism, mood, and some behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hormones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. The Endocrine System <ul><li>Cortisol: </li></ul><ul><li>CortiSlim? </li></ul>
  46. 46. The Endocrine System <ul><li>“ Cortisol is the body's main stress hormone, and is required for many vital purposes -- proper glucose metabolism, blood pressure, immune function and inflammatory response are a few. In times of stress, either mental or physical, the body can produce an excessive amount of cortisol. At these high levels, cortisol is a nasty little number indeed. It can negatively affect cognitive performance, suppress thyroid function, foster blood sugar imbalances and the subsequent deposition of body fat, decrease bone density, as well as other things. Athletes don't like cortisol, as it is catabolic -- i.e., muscle-wasting, rather than anabolic -- i.e., muscle building.” </li></ul>

×