Ψ You have a “blind spot” on the back of each eye that transmits no visual information to your brain?Ψ Loud music (or loud noises) can lead to permanent hearing loss?
Ψ You can see a candle burning 30 miles away on a clear, dark night, hear the tick of a watch at 20 feet (under quiet conditions), taste 1 teaspoon of sugar dissolved in 2 gallons of water, and smell one drop of perfume in a three-room apartment?
Ψ All outside information comes into us through our senses.Ψ Sensation—the process of detecting, receiving, converting and transmitting information resulting from stimulation of sensory receptors.Ψ Perception—the process of selecting, identifying, organizing and interpreting sensory input into a useful and meaningful mental representations of the world in the light of relevant memories from past experiences.
Ψ The basic function of sensation is detection of sensory stimuli, whereas perception generally involves interpretation of the same stimuli.Ψ Our senses tell us something is out there. Our perception tell us what that something is.Ψ In practice, sensation and perception are virtually impossible to separate, because they are part of one continuous process.
Ψ SENSATION IS THE PROCESS OF DETECTING AND ENCODING STIMULUS IN THE WORLD.
Ψ Vision (sense of sight) sensitive to LIGHT ENERGYΨ Auditory (sense of hearing) stimulated by SOUND ENERGYΨ Olfaction (sense of smell) stimulates our nostrils by CHEMICAL ENERGYΨ Gustation (sense of taste)Ψ Tactile (skin senses for pressure, temperature, pain) THERMAL ENERGY
Ψ Vestibular (sense of balance)Ψ Kinesthesia (sense of posture and movement)Ψ Organic (sensation from internal organs such as hunger, thirst, drowsiness)
Information (e.g. light, sound)—activate our sensereceptors in the sensory organs which receive andprocess sensory information from environment. Transduction—after stimuli enter sensory organs, the sense receptor will change/covert the stimulus into electrical signals called neural impulses which are sent to the brain. When neural impulses reach the particular area in the brain, they are changed into meaningless bits of information called sensation which involves the detection of sensory stimuli. These meaningless bits of information are then changed into meaningful and complete images called perception—the interpretation of sensory stimuli.
Ψ Our sense organs translate physical energy from the environment into electrical impulses processed by the brain. For example, light, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, causes receptor cells in our eyes to activate and send signals to the brain.Ψ But we do not understand these signals as pure energy. The process of perception allows us to interpret them as objects, events, people, and situations.
Ψ Without the ability to organize and interpret sensations, life would seem like a meaningless jumble of colors, shapes, and sounds. A person without any perceptual ability would not be able to recognize faces, understand language, or avoid threats.
Ψ Sensory reduction—the process in which we filter and analyze sensory information before they are sent to the brain.Ψ Why do we need to reduce the amount of sensory information we receive? So that the brain is not overwhelmed with unnecessary information because it needs to be free to respond to stimuli that have meaning for survival. All species have evolved selective receptors that suppress or amplify information to allow survival.
Ψ Synesthesia— literally means “mixing of senses,” people with synesthesia routinely blend their sensory experience.
ΨSensory adaptation— repeated or constant stimulation decreases the number of sensory messages sent to the brain, which causes decreased sensation.
ΨThreshold—refers to a point above which a stimulus is perceived and below which it is not perceived. It determines when we first become aware of a stimulus.
Ψ SENSORY THRESHOLDSΨ HOW CLOSE DOES AN APPROACHING BUMBLE BEE HAVE TO BE, BEFORE YOU CAN HEAR IT BUZZING?Ψ HOW FAR DOES A BREWING COFFEE POT HAVE TO BE, FOR YOU TO DETECT THE AROMA OF THE COFFEE.
Ψ Difference threshold—or just noticeable difference, is the smallest change in stimulus that we can detect.Ψ Example: An artist might detect the difference between two very similar shades of color
ΨAbsolute threshold— the smallest amount of stimulus that can be detected. When a stimulus has more energy than the absolute threshold, we can detect its presence. When a stimulus has less energy than the absolute threshold, we cannot detect its presence.
ΨAbsolute threshold• PEOPLE HAVE DIFFERENT THRESHOLDS, BECAUSE SOME PEOPLE HAVE BETTER HEARING THAN OTHERS, AND SOME PEOPLE HAVE BETTER VISIONS THAN OTHERS.
The word perception comes from the Latin perception-, percepio, meaning "receiving, collecting, action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind or senses."
To identify a pattern of sensory input is to categorize it, in which various expectations, motives, experiences are brought into play.Example: – If this is a mice, it is afraid of cat.
The first step in perception isselection—choosingwhere to direct our attention.
We do not perceive everything at once—we select certain objects to perceive while ignoring others.Attention—is the direction of perception toward certain selected objects.
Attention is selective—we focus on specific and important aspects of experience while ignoring others. Attention is shiftable—we may focus from one specific object to another.
Nature—whether visual or auditory, words or images, animate or inanimate objects Reality—real, concrete things are more attention-getting than hypothetical, abstract or mental Familiarity—people pay more attention to things that are familiar Location/Proximity—we pay attention to things that are near than those that are far Novelty—we pay attention to things that are new and different in contrast to what is customary
Suspense—people pay attentionto things that build suspense.Conflict—people pay attention toa good fight.Humor—people pay attention tothings that are funny.The vital—people nearly alwayspay attention to matters that affecttheir health, reputation, property, oremployment.Activity—things that move, flashor blinkIntensity—sounds that are louderare more attention-getting than softmusic
Having selected incoming information, we organize it into patterns and principles that willhelp us understand the world.
After selectively sorting through incoming sensory information and organizing it into patterns, the brainuses this information to explain andmake judgments about the external world. This is the final stage of perception—interpretation.
Try to read the following passage:Can you read this text when it is upside down? Knowledge and experience are extremely important for perception, because they help us make sense of the input to our sensory systems. In the example above, you did not stop to read every single letter carefully. Instead, you probably perceived whole words and phrases.
In mentally organizing stimuli, objects that are physically close to one another are grouped together or seen as a unit.
In organizing stimuli, elements that appear similar in color, lightness, texture, shape, or any other quality are grouped together.
The law of continuity leads us to see a line as continuing in a particular direction, rather than making an abrupt turn.We tend to favor smooth or continuous paths when interpreting a series of points or lines.
In organizing stimuli, we tend to fill in any missing part or incomplete figures and see them as complete figures.
In organizing stimuli, we tend to favor symmetrical objects or relationships.
Perception does not only involve organization and grouping, it also involves distinguishing an object from its surroundings. Once an object is perceived, the area around that object (figure) becomes the background.
In organizing a stimuli, we tend to automatically distinguish between a figure or foreground (object with more details) and a ground (has less detail).
Gestalt psychologists have devised ambiguous figure- ground relationships— that is, drawings in which the figure and ground can be reversed—to illustrate their point that the whole is different from the sum of its parts.
Reversible figures are those objects that are so shaped that both may be seen as either the figure or the ground— the object that the individual is set to perceive will probably be noticed first.
Interests or motives Set of expectations Socio-cultural factors Past experiences Situational context
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ESP• IT IS A PERCEPTION WITHOUT THE MEDIATION OF THE SENSES. IT INCLUDES: – CLAIRVOYANCE – IS EXTRA SENSORY AWARENESS OF OBJECTS. – CONTACT BETWEEN THE MIND OF THE PERSON AND ON THE OJECT.
– TELEPATHY – IS A THOUGHT TRANSMISSION FROM ONE MIND TO ANOTHER.– PRECOGNITION – IS FOREKNOWLEDGE OF SPECIFIC EVENTS WITHOUT ANY RATIONAL MEANS.– PSYCHOKINESIS – (MIND OVER MATTER) INCLUDES MENTAL OPERATIONS THAT INFLUENCES A MATERIAL BODY OR AN ENERGY SYSTEM.