Serotonin plays an important part in the regulation of learning, mood, sleep and vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels). Experts say serotonin also might have a role in anxiety , migraine , vomiting and appetite. Alterations in serotonin levels in the brain may affect mood. Some antidepressant medications affect the action of serotonin, i.e. they are used to treat depression . Acetylcholine is a very widely distributed excitatory neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction and stimulates the excretion of certain hormones. In the central nervous system, it is involved in wakefulness, attentiveness, anger, aggression, sexuality, and thirst, among other things. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in controlling movement and posture. It also modulates mood and plays a central role in positive reinforcement and dependency . Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that is important for attentiveness, emotions, sleeping, dreaming, and learning. Norepinephrine is also released as a hormone into the blood, where it causes blood vessels to contract and heart rate to increase. An important role of endorphins is to work with sedative receptors that are known to relieve common pain. Control persistent pain Control the craving for chocolate and potentially addictive substances Control feelings of stress and frustration Regulate the production of growth and sex hormones Reduce symptoms associated with eating disorders GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is very widely distributed in the neurons of the cortex. GABA contributes to motor control, vision, and many other cortical functions. It also regulates anxiety.
first case suggesting that damage to specific regions of the brain might affect personality and behavior.
General psych neurobiological bases
NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR Atty. Harve B. Abella, Esq.
Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS) <ul><li>The spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary, automatic behaviors called reflexes . </li></ul>
Nervous System Organization: Subdivisions of the Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Somatic Nervous System (SNS): connects to sensory receptors and controls skeletal muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): controls involuntary bodily functions </li></ul><ul><li>ANS is subdivided into: Sympathetic Nervous System (arouses) and the Parasympathetic Nervous System (calms) </li></ul>
Nervous System Organization: <ul><li>Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous Systems </li></ul>
A Tour Through The Brain: Hindbrain <ul><li>Three key structures of the hindbrain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla : life survival functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pons : respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, and dreaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum : coordination of fine muscular movements, balance, and some aspects of perception and cognition </li></ul></ul>
A Tour Through The Brain (Continued) <ul><li>Midbrain : collection of brain structures in the middle of the brain that coordinates movement patterns, sleep, and arousal </li></ul><ul><li>(Reticular formation : runs through the hindbrain, midbrain, and brainstem and screens incoming information and controls arousal </li></ul>
A Tour Through The Brain (Continued) <ul><li>Forebrain: collection of upper-level brain structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus : relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus : responsible for emotions, drives, and regulating the body’s internal environment </li></ul></ul>
A Tour Through The Brain (Continued) <ul><li>Limbic System: interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory </li></ul>
A Tour Through the Brain: The Importance of the Frontal Lobes <ul><li>Phineas Gage’s mining accident sent a 13-pound tamping iron through his frontal lobes. How did this affect his short- and long-term behavior and mental processes? </li></ul>
A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.) <ul><li>Parietal Lobes: located at the top of the brain directly behind the frontal lobes and responsible for interpreting bodily sensations </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobes: located on each side of the brain above the ears and responsible for audition, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobes : located at the back of the brain responsible for vision and visual perception </li></ul>
A Tour Through The Brain: The Motor Cortex and Somatosensory Cortex
Our Genetic Inheritance: Genes & DNA <ul><li>The nucleus of every cell in our body contains genes , which carry the code for hereditary transmission. These genes are arranged along chromosomes (strands of paired DNA ). </li></ul>
Our Genetic Inheritance: Genes & DNA <ul><li>Tongue-curling is one of the only traits that depends on a specific dominant gene. </li></ul>
Our Genetic Inheritance <ul><li>Evolutionary Psychology: studies how natural selection and adaptation help explain behavior and mental processes </li></ul>
Our Genetic Inheritance <ul><li>Sex differences in lateralization. Note how activation is confined to only one hemisphere in the male brain on the left, and how it occurs on both hemispheres in the female brain on the right. </li></ul>