General psych neurobiological bases

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  • Serotonin plays an important part in the regulation of learning, mood, sleep and vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels). Experts say serotonin also might have a role in anxiety , migraine , vomiting and appetite. Alterations in serotonin levels in the brain may affect mood. Some antidepressant medications affect the action of serotonin, i.e. they are used to treat depression . Acetylcholine is a very widely distributed excitatory neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction and stimulates the excretion of certain hormones. In the central nervous system, it is involved in wakefulness, attentiveness, anger, aggression, sexuality, and thirst, among other things. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in controlling movement and posture. It also modulates mood and plays a central role in positive reinforcement and dependency . Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that is important for attentiveness, emotions, sleeping, dreaming, and learning. Norepinephrine is also released as a hormone into the blood, where it causes blood vessels to contract and heart rate to increase. An important role of endorphins is to work with sedative receptors that are known to relieve common pain. Control persistent pain Control the craving for chocolate and potentially addictive substances Control feelings of stress and frustration Regulate the production of growth and sex hormones Reduce symptoms associated with eating disorders GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is very widely distributed in the neurons of the cortex. GABA contributes to motor control, vision, and many other cortical functions. It also regulates anxiety.
  • first case suggesting that damage to specific regions of the brain might affect personality and behavior.
  • General psych neurobiological bases

    1. 1. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR Atty. Harve B. Abella, Esq.
    2. 3. Lecture Overview <ul><li>Neural Bases of Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous System Organization </li></ul><ul><li>A Tour Through the Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Our Genetic Inheritance </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    3. 4. Neural Bases of Psychology <ul><li>Neuroscience: </li></ul><ul><li>interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes </li></ul>
    4. 5. Neural Bases of Psychology <ul><li>The nervous system consists of neurons (cells responsible for receiving and transmitting electrochemical information). </li></ul>
    5. 6. Neural Bases of Psychology: The Structure of a Neuron
    6. 7. Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication <ul><li>Within a neuron, communication occurs through an action potential (neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron). </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    7. 8. Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued) <ul><li>Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural information across a synapse by neurotransmitters (chemicals released by neurons that alter activity in other neurons). </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    8. 10. <ul><li>Receiving neurons receive multiple messages from other neurons, and these messages determine if an action potential occurs or not. </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)
    9. 11. Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued) <ul><li>Note how the axon terminals of sending neurons almost completely cover the cell body of the receiving neuron. </li></ul>
    10. 12. Neural Bases of Psychology: Applying Psychology to Everyday Life <ul><li>Major Neurotransmitters: </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine (ACh) </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine (DA) </li></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine (NE) </li></ul><ul><li>Epinephrine (adrenaline) </li></ul><ul><li>GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) </li></ul><ul><li>Endorphins </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    11. 14. Neural Bases of Psychology: Receptor Sites <ul><li>normal message </li></ul><ul><li>blocked message (wrong shape) </li></ul><ul><li>agonistic drugs mimic shape and enhance neurotransmitter </li></ul><ul><li>antagonistic drugs fill the site and block neurotransmitter </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    12. 15. Neural Bases of Psychology: How Hormones Affect Us <ul><li>Endocrine System: collection of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    13. 16. Nervous System Organization <ul><li>Central Nervous System (CNS): includes the brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): includes all nerves and neurons connecting CNS to the rest of the body (subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems) </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    14. 17. Nervous System Organization
    15. 18. Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS) <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Cord (transmits information into and out of the brain ) </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    16. 19. Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS) <ul><li>The spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary, automatic behaviors called reflexes . </li></ul>
    17. 20. Nervous System Organization: Subdivisions of the Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Somatic Nervous System (SNS): connects to sensory receptors and controls skeletal muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): controls involuntary bodily functions </li></ul><ul><li>ANS is subdivided into: Sympathetic Nervous System (arouses) and the Parasympathetic Nervous System (calms) </li></ul>
    18. 21. Nervous System Organization: <ul><li>Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous Systems </li></ul>
    19. 22. A Tour Through the Brain
    20. 23. A Tour Through The Brain: Hindbrain <ul><li>Three key structures of the hindbrain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla : life survival functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pons : respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, and dreaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum : coordination of fine muscular movements, balance, and some aspects of perception and cognition </li></ul></ul>
    21. 24. A Tour Through The Brain (Continued) <ul><li>Midbrain : collection of brain structures in the middle of the brain that coordinates movement patterns, sleep, and arousal </li></ul><ul><li>(Reticular formation : runs through the hindbrain, midbrain, and brainstem and screens incoming information and controls arousal </li></ul>
    22. 25. A Tour Through The Brain (Continued) <ul><li>Forebrain: collection of upper-level brain structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus : relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus : responsible for emotions, drives, and regulating the body’s internal environment </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. A Tour Through The Brain (Continued) <ul><li>Limbic System: interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory </li></ul>
    24. 27. A Tour Through The Brain: Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>Cerebral Cortex: thin surface layer on the left and right cerebral hemispheres regulating most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, and higher mental processes </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    25. 28. A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)
    26. 29. A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>The frontal Lobes - receive and coordinate messages from other lobes and are responsible for motor control, speech production, and higher functions, such as thinking, personality, emotion, and memory. </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    27. 30. A Tour Through the Brain: The Importance of the Frontal Lobes <ul><li>Phineas Gage’s mining accident sent a 13-pound tamping iron through his frontal lobes. How did this affect his short- and long-term behavior and mental processes? </li></ul>
    28. 31. A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.) <ul><li>Parietal Lobes: located at the top of the brain directly behind the frontal lobes and responsible for interpreting bodily sensations </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobes: located on each side of the brain above the ears and responsible for audition, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobes : located at the back of the brain responsible for vision and visual perception </li></ul>
    29. 32. A Tour Through The Brain: The Motor Cortex and Somatosensory Cortex
    30. 33. A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research <ul><li>Severing the corpus callosum provides data regarding the functions of the brain’s two hemispheres. </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    31. 34. A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research (Continued)
    32. 35. A Tour Through The Brain: Lateralization <ul><li>The left and right hemispheres of the </li></ul><ul><li>brain each specialize </li></ul><ul><li>in particular operations. </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    33. 37. Our Genetic Inheritance <ul><li>To answer questions about the influence of nature versus nurture , psychologists use behavioral genetics research. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Genetics: studies the relative effects of nature (heredity, genes, and chromosomes) and nurture (environment) on behavior and mental processes. </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    34. 38. Our Genetic Inheritance: Genes & DNA <ul><li>The nucleus of every cell in our body contains genes , which carry the code for hereditary transmission. These genes are arranged along chromosomes (strands of paired DNA ). </li></ul>
    35. 39. Our Genetic Inheritance: Genes & DNA <ul><li>Tongue-curling is one of the only traits that depends on a specific dominant gene. </li></ul>
    36. 40. Our Genetic Inheritance: Twin Research ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
    37. 41. Our Genetic Inheritance <ul><li>Evolutionary Psychology: studies how natural selection and adaptation help explain behavior and mental processes </li></ul>
    38. 42. Our Genetic Inheritance <ul><li>Sex differences in lateralization. Note how activation is confined to only one hemisphere in the male brain on the left, and how it occurs on both hemispheres in the female brain on the right. </li></ul>
    39. 43. Our Genetic Inheritance: Better Living Through Neuroscience <ul><li>Neuroplasticity: brain’s lifelong ability to reorganize and change its structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>Neurogenesis: the division and differentiation of non-neuronal cells to produce neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells: Precursor (immature) cells that give birth to new specialized cells </li></ul>©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

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