Mirror neuron cns

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Mirror neuron cns

  1. 1. Control of Body Functions<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Control of Body Functions<br />Nervous System Endocrine<br />(Chemical & electric) (Hormonal)<br />Central NS Peripheral NS<br />Brain Spinal<br /> Cord<br />
  7. 7. PeripheralNervous System<br /><ul><li>Autonomic Nervous System
  8. 8. Unconscious activation to maintain life
  9. 9. Respiration, pupils, heartbeat…
  10. 10. Somatic Nervous System
  11. 11. Conscious purposeful activation
  12. 12. Posture, muscles, locomotion….</li></li></ul><li>AutonomicSANS PANS<br />Sympathetic (Adrenergic) Autonomic Nervous System<br /><ul><li>Fight and Flight
  13. 13. Increase Heart Rate
  14. 14. Increase Contractility
  15. 15. Broncho-dilate
  16. 16. Renin Release</li></ul>Parasympathetic (Cholinergic)<br /> Autonomic Nervous System<br /><ul><li>Relax and Conserve
  17. 17. Heart Rate
  18. 18. Contractility</li></li></ul><li>Neurohumoral TransmissionSANS PANS<br />Alpha receptors<br />Alpha 1<br />Alpha 2<br />Beta receptors<br />Beta 1<br />Beta 2<br />Norepinephrine<br />Epinephrine<br />Acetylcholine<br />Nicotinic sites<br />Muscarinic sites<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Mirror Neuron<br />
  21. 21. A Mirror Neuron is a neuron which fires both when an animal performs an action and when the animal observes the same action performed by another animal.<br />
  22. 22. Discovery ~ Brain imaging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that the same area of the brain is active: when the person performs an action and when the person sees another individual performing an action.<br />
  23. 23. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex and the inferior parietal cortex.<br />
  24. 24. Why do sports fans feel so emotionally invested in the game, reacting almost as if they were part of the game themselves? <br />The Do-er, as though the Observer were acting. <br />Brain imaging, inside our heads, we constantly "act out" & imitate the activity we're observing. <br />“Mirror neurons" help us understand the actions of others & prime us to imitate what we see.<br />
  25. 25. About 10% of neurons in the monkey inferior frontal & inferior parietal cortex have 'mirror' properties.<br />Humans have similar mirror neurons systems which respond during both action and observation of action.<br />Wide network of brain areas shows mirror properties in humans.<br />Why is this Important?<br />Makes the observer feel what it feels like to move in the observed way.<br />
  26. 26. Functions<br />Empathy<br />Important in understanding the actions of other people<br />Understanding Intentions<br />Language Acquisition<br />Inference<br />Imitation <br />Learning new skills<br />Problems with the mirror system<br /> May underlie cognitive disorders<br />
  27. 27. One connection<br />

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