Group Structure (Psychology of Small Groups)


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A powerpoint presentation on the structure of groups, either informal or formal groups.

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Group Structure (Psychology of Small Groups)

  1. 1. How are groups structured?<br />Group Structure<br />
  2. 2. Group structure<br />The underlying pattern of roles, norms, and networks of relations among members that define and organize the group<br /><ul><li>An integrated organizational pattern that reflects the totality of the separate parts that inhere in each individual group member</li></li></ul><li>Nature of Group structure<br />
  3. 3. Nature of Group structure<br />
  4. 4. Norms<br />Are rules of conduct that each group establishes<br /><ul><li>They are emergent, consensual standards that regulates the group members’ behaviors
  5. 5. Emergent
  6. 6. Consensual </li></ul>They develop gradually during the course of interaction among members—in some cases through deliberation and choice but often only gradually as members’ actions align.<br />Norms are shared rules of action<br />Norms are social standards that are accepted by a substantial portion of the group<br />
  7. 7. Types of Norms<br />
  8. 8. Characteristics and Varieties of Norms<br />
  9. 9. Roles<br />Coherent sets of behaviors expected of people in specific positioned within a group or social setting<br /><ul><li>Roles in a group are similar in some respects to roles in a play.
  10. 10. A play’s role describe the characters that the actors portray before the audience
  11. 11. To become Juliet in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, for example, an actor must perform certain actions and recite her dialogue accordingly.
  12. 12. Similarly, roles in group structure behavior by dictating the part that members take as they interact</li></li></ul><li>Role Differentiation<br />An increase in the number of roles in a group, accompanied by the gradual decrease in the scope of these roles as each one becomes more narrowly defined and specialized<br />
  13. 13. Types of Roles<br />
  14. 14. Group Socialization Theory(Richard Moreland and John Levine (1982)<br />
  15. 15. Role Stress<br />
  16. 16. Role Ambiguity<br />
  17. 17. Role Conflict<br />
  18. 18. Role and Well-being<br />Role fit<br /><ul><li>The degree of congruence between the demands of a specific role and the attitudes, values, skills, and other characteristics of the individual who occupies the role</li></li></ul><li>Status Differentiation<br />The gradual rise of some group members to positions of greater authority, accompanied by decreases in the authority exercised by other members.<br /><ul><li>It is rare that all members in a group enjoy equal amounts of authority.
  19. 19. Certain individuals acquire authority by laying claim to a position of greater status and by having their claim accepted by the other members of the group.</li></li></ul><li>Status Networks<br />
  20. 20. Expectation-States Theory (Joseph Berger and others)<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Attraction Networks<br />Patterns of liking/disliking, acceptance/rejection, and inclusion/exclusion among members of a group<br />Also known as sociometric structure<br />Develops through a sociometric differentiation<br /> process that orders group<br /> members from least liked<br /> to most liked.<br />Attraction relations tend to<br /> be reciprocal and transitive,<br /> and clusters or coalitions often<br /> exist within the group that are <br /> higher in homophily than the<br /> group as a whole.<br />
  23. 23. Attraction Networks<br />As Heider’s balance theory suggests, sociometric structures also tend to reach a state of equilibrium in which likes and dislikes are balanced within the group.<br />Sociometric differentiation generally favors individuals who possess socially attractive qualities, such as cooperativeness of physical appeal<br />But social standing also depends on the degree to which the individual’s attributes match the qualities valued by the group (person-group fit)<br />
  24. 24. Communication Networks<br />Patterns of informal transmission and exchange that describe who communicates most frequently and to what extent with whom<br />
  25. 25. Communication Networks<br />
  26. 26. Communication Networks<br />A group’s communication network may parallel formally established paths, but most groups also have an informal network that defines who speaks to whom most frequently.<br />Centralized networks are more efficient if tasks are too complex and require high levels of information exchange<br />A group’s network influences a variety of group and individual outcomes, including performance, effectiveness, and levels of satisfaction.<br />Individuals who occupy more central positions in communication networks are more ifluencial<br />
  27. 27. THE END.<br />Prepared by: Jeel Christine C. de Egurrola<br />